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BACKGROUND Alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody that depletes lymphocytes, causing long-term immunomodulation. In a 3-year, rater-blinded phase 2 study (the CAMMS223 study) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), alemtuzumab reduced relapse rate and the risk of sustained accumulation of disability compared with subcutaneous(More)
Abnormal cortical activity and brainstem functioning are considered the possible etiopathogenetic factors of migraine. Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO-A and -B) regulate the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, so changes in their activity could participate in migraine pathogenesis. We have investigated the possible association of MAO-A and -B alleles and(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the long-term safety and efficacy results from CAMMS223 comparing alemtuzumab with interferon β-1a in early, active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). What are the long-term effects of alemtuzumab treatment, received 36 to 48 months previously, on relapse and disability in early, active RRMS? This study provides evidence of(More)
Cerebral acidic metabolites and penicillin are organic anions which can be carried by active transport into capillaries of the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is generally believed that these metabolites are mainly delivered from CNS to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and eliminated by CSF circulation over cortex and its absorption into dural venous(More)
After application of [3H]benzylpenicillin ([3H]BP) in lateral brain ventricle in dogs, the distribution of [3H]BP to contralateral ventricle and cisterna magna was much higher when its active transport from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was blocked by probenecid than under control conditions. Analysis of [3H]BP concentrations in both lateral ventricles and(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze changes in T-helper (Th) subsets, T-regulatory (Treg) cell percentages and function, and mRNA levels of immunologically relevant molecules during a 24-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS Multicenter follow-up of 29 alemtuzumab-treated patients with RRMS in(More)
Acute osmolar loading of cerebrospinal fluid within one lateral ventricle of dogs was examined as a cause of water extraction from the bloodstream and an increase in intracranial pressure. We have shown that a certain amount of (3)H₂O from the bloodstream enters osmotically loaded cerebrospinal fluid significantly faster, hence causing a significant(More)
Since the distribution of substances between various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments is poorly understood, we studied (3)H-inulin distribution, over time, after its injection into cisterna magna (CM) or lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna corporis callosi (CCC) in dogs. After the injection into CM (3)H-inulin was well distributed to cisterna basalis(More)
Arylsulfatase A (ASA) is a lysosomal enzyme involved in catabolism of cerebroside-sulfate, major lipid constituent of oligodendrocyte membranes. Various polymorphisms in ASA gene have been described, leading to different levels of enzyme deficiency. Progressive demyelination occurs in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), while the condition of(More)
Supplemental data at Neurology.org/nn Alemtuzumab long-term immunologic effect Treg suppressor function increases up to 24 months ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze changes in T-helper (Th) subsets, T-regulatory (Treg) cell percentages and function, and mRNA levels of immunologically relevant molecules during a 24-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment in(More)