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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
Bacteriophages, herpesviruses, and other large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses contain molecular machines that pump DNA into preassembled procapsids, generating internal capsid pressures exceeding, by 10-fold, that of bottled champagne. A 17 angstrom resolution asymmetric reconstruction of the infectious P22 virion reveals that tightly spooled DNA about(More)
Various animals derive nutrients from symbiotic microorganisms with much-reduced genomes, but it is unknown whether, and how, the supply of these nutrients is regulated. Here, we demonstrate that the production of essential amino acids (EAAs) by the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum is elevated when aphids are reared on(More)
BACKGROUND. Human seminal fluid contains small exosome-like vesicles called prosta-somes. Prostasomes have been reported previously to play an important role in the process of fertilization by boosting survivability and motility of spermatozoa, in addition to modulating acrosomal reactivity. Prostasomes have also been reported to present with sizes varying(More)
Direct-method formalism to determine atomic structures using electron diffraction data is here aimed at a general solution of the phase-retrieval problem, consequently combining electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) patterns in a 'domino' fashion. While there are similarities to conventional (kinematical)(More)
The simple quasi-static model for convergence of afferent impulse fluxes on the neuron membrane is presented in this paper. Interaction of activation effects in basic types of chemical synapses is considered. It is shown that the character of this interaction differs from the algebraic summation of single effects. This phenomenon is based on the mechanism(More)
  • A M Poliakov
  • 1983
The functional dependence of neuronal MP on afferent impulse activity was revealed with the aid of the mathematical model of neuronal integration processes. This dependence enables to regard a neuron as a continuous information reception system. In the system, the mean impulse rates are important rather than the time of appearance of separate APs. This is(More)