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OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence rate, impairment, comorbidity, course of illness and determinants of eight specific phobia variants: animals (animal subtype); heights, water, storms (natural environment subtype); flying, enclosed spaces, being alone (situational subtype); and blood/injury (blood/injury subtype). METHOD Data were obtained from the(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. (More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the comorbidity of and communality of risk factors associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders in later life. METHOD A random age- and sex-stratified community-based sample (N=3,056) of the elderly (age 55-85 years) in the Netherlands was studied. A two-stage screening design was used,(More)
The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571-583] in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compares these effects with(More)
OBJECTIVE This study, to the authors' knowledge, is the first randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), paroxetine, and a placebo (administered in a double blind fashion) in the treatment of hypochondriasis. METHOD The authors randomly assigned 112 subjects with hypochondriasis according to DSM-IV criteria to(More)
BACKGROUND Benzodiazepine withdrawal programmes have never been experimentally compared with a nonintervention control condition. AIMS To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use in general practice, and to evaluate the value of additional group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). METHOD A 3-month randomised,(More)
BACKGROUND This 12-week, placebo-controlled study was carried out to compare the relative efficacy of paroxetine, clomipramine, and cognitive therapy in the treatment of DSM-III-R-defined panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. METHOD After a 3-week single-blind, placebo run-in period, 131 patients were randomly assigned to receive double-blind(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the short-term efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) vs. tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in the treatment of panic disorder (PD) a meta-analysis was conducted. METHOD Included were 43 studies (34 randomized, nine open), pertaining to 53 treatment conditions, 2367 patients at pretest and 1804 at post-test.(More)
CONTEXT The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-striatal circuit, which is important for motivational behavior, is assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) according to current neurobiological models of this disorder. However, the engagement of this neural loop in OCD has not been tested directly in a cognitive activation(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of benzodiazepine consumption in European countries remains at 2-3% of the general population despite the well-documented disadvantages of long-term use. AIMS To review systematically the success rates of different benzodiazepine discontinuation strategies. METHOD Meta-analysis of comparable intervention studies. RESULTS(More)