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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE After stroke, brain tissue undergoes time-dependent heterogeneous histopathological change. These tissue alterations have MRI characteristics that allow segmentation of ischemic from nonischemic tissue. Moreover, MRI segmentation generates different zones within the lesion that may reflect heterogeneity of tissue damage. METHODS A(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. Presently, there is no way to restore cognitive deficits caused by TBI. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effect of statins (simvastatin and atorvastatin) on the spatial learning and neurogenesis in rats subjected to controlled cortical impact. Rats were treated with(More)
OBJECT Atorvastatin, a beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, has pleiotropic effects, such as promoting angiogenesis, increasing fibrinolysis, and reducing inflammatory responses, and has shown promise in enhancing recovery in animals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. The authors tested the effect of atorvastatin on(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effects of a combination therapy of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and statins (atorvastatin) after traumatic brain injury in rats. METHODS Thirty-two female Wistar rats were injured by controlled cortical impact and divided into four groups. Group I was injected with MSCs (1 x 10(6)) intravenously 24 hrs after traumatic(More)
Statins administered postischemia promote functional improvement in rats, independent of their capability to lower cholesterol. We therefore tested the effect of statin treatment on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Atorvastatin was orally administered (1 mg/kg/day) to Wistar rats starting 1 day after TBI for 7 consecutive days. Control animals received(More)
OBJECT This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective properties of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) and carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) administered following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. METHODS Sixty adult male Wistar rats were injured with controlled cortical impact, and then EPO, CEPO, or a placebo (phosphate-buffered saline)(More)
Rapid and marked increased levels of expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA have been detected in animal models of cerebral ischemia. However, the protein production of IL-1beta and the cellular sources of IL-1beta are largely undefined after cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we have measured the cellular localization of IL-1beta protein in(More)
This study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. Twelve female C57BL/6J mice (weight, 21-26 g) were injured with controlled cortical impact and divided into 2 groups (n=6 each). The experimental group was injected with MSCs (0.3x10(6)) intravenously(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR), essential for erythropoiesis, are expressed in the nervous system. Recombinant human EPO treatment promotes functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, suggesting that the endogenous EPO/EPOR system plays an important role in neuroprotection and neurorestoration. This study was designed to(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in models of stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) when administered prior to or within the first few hours after injury. We seek to demonstrate that EPO also has neurorestorative effects when administered late (i.e., 1 day) after TBI in the rat. Twelve rats were subjected to TBI. Six rats were treated with EPO(More)