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The origin of orientation selectivity in visual cortical responses is a central problem for understanding cerebral cortical circuitry. In cats, many experiments suggest that orientation selectivity arises from the arrangement of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) afferents to layer 4 simple cells. However, this explanation is not sufficient to account for the(More)
It is well established that perceptual direction discrimination shows an oblique effect; thresholds are higher for motion along diagonal directions than for motion along cardinal directions. Here, we compare simultaneous direction judgments and pursuit responses for the same motion stimuli and find that both pursuit and perceptual thresholds show similar(More)
Cells in cerebral cortex fail to respond to fast-moving stimuli that evoke strong responses in the thalamic nuclei innervating the cortex. The reason for this behavior has remained a mystery. We study an experimentally motivated model of the thalamic input-recipient layer of cat primary visual cortex that accounts for many aspects of cortical orientation(More)
We develop a new analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) input to a cortical simple cell, demonstrating that this input is the sum of two terms, a linear term and a nonlinear term. In response to a drifting grating, the linear term represents the temporal modulation of input, and the nonlinear term represents the mean input. The nonlinear term,(More)
It has long been known that ocular pursuit of a moving target has a major influence on its perceived speed (Aubert, 1886; Fleischl, 1882). However, little is known about the effect of smooth pursuit on the perception of target direction. Here we compare the precision of human visual-direction judgments under two oculomotor conditions (pursuit vs. fixation).(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: a b s t r a c t Saccade detection in an eye-movement trace provides a starting point(More)
In cortical simple cells of cat striate cortex, the response to a visual stimulus of the preferred orientation is partially suppressed by simultaneous presentation of a stimulus at the orthogonal orientation, an effect known as "cross-orientation inhibition." It has been argued that this is due to the presence of inhibitory connections between cells tuned(More)
The crystallographic phase problem is indeterminate in the absence of additional chemical information. A successful ab initio approach to the macromolecular phase problem must employ sufficient chemical constraints to limit the solutions to a manageably small number. Here we show that commonly employed chemical constraints - positivity, atomicity and a(More)