Anton Carel Stoltz

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RATIONALE Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective,(More)
Mutations causing mono and cross-resistance among amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin of second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) namely are not well understood. We investigated 124 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for mutations within rrs, eis, tlyA and efflux pump (Rv1258c and Rv0194) genes involved in resistance towards SLIDs. The distribution of(More)
RATIONALE Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. OBJECTIVES We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB(More)
Recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns constitutes a crucial step in the initiation of innate immune responses. We studied the contribution to the host-pathogen interaction of mycolic acid (MA), a major lipid component of the cell envelope of the macrophage intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. MA(More)
Cell wall mycolic acids (MA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are CD1b presented antigens that can be used to detect antibodies as surrogate markers of active TB, even in HIV coinfected patients. The use of the complex mixtures of natural MA is complicated by an apparent antibody cross-reactivity with cholesterol. Here firstly we report three(More)
Antibodies to mycolic acid (MA) antigens can be detected as surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) with evanescent field biosensors where the lipid antigens are encapsulated in liposomes. Standard immunoassay such as ELISA, where the lipid antigen is not encapsulated, but directly adsorbed to the well-bottoms of microtiter plates, does not yield the(More)
BACKGROUND Two thirds of the world's new HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa. Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the time of virus acquisition until the appearance of HIV antibodies. Early HIV infection, which includes AHI, is the interval between virus acquisition and establishment of viral load set-point. This study aimed to detect acute and early HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with severe diseases in immunosuppressed patients; however, there is a lack of data for pre-emptive therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHOD This was a retrospective study, which enrolled patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (CD4<200 cells/μl), who had detectable CMV viral load (VL) during their stay(More)
The appearance of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) poses a great challenge to the development of novel treatment programmes to combat tuberculosis. Since innovative nanotechnologies might alleviate the limitations of current therapies, we have designed a new nanoformulation for use as an anti-TB drug delivery system. It consists of(More)