Antoinette A. Grobbelaar

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To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2 species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We(More)
The recent occurrence of the first confirmed outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in humans and livestock outside the African region, namely in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Yemen, is of global medical and veterinary concern. Disadvantages of classical techniques for serological diagnosis of Rift Valley fever include health risk to laboratory personnel,(More)
Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 29 southern African West Nile virus (formal name West Nile virus [WNV]) isolates from various sources in four countries from 1958 to 2001. In addition, sequence data were retrieved from GenBank for another 23 WNV isolates and Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses. All isolates belonged to two lineages. Lineage(More)
Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted(More)
We developed a real-time reverse transcription--PCR that detected 1,164 copies/mL of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus per milliliter of serum at 95% probability (probit analysis) and was 100% concordant with nested PCR on 63 samples from 31 patients with confirmed infection. Infected patients who died appeared to have higher viral loads; low viral(More)
In mid-September 2000, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus was diagnosed as the cause of infection in humans and livestock in Jizan Region, Saudi Arabia. This is the first time that this arbovirus has been found outside Africa and Madagascar. Collections of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were therefore undertaken (from 25 September to 10 October) at eight sites(More)
Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with Marburg virus (MARV). No deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. The virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab(More)
The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is currently regarded as a potential reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). However, the modes of transmission, the level of viral replication, tissue tropism and viral shedding pattern remains to be described. Captive-bred R. aegyptiacus, including adult males, females and pups were exposed to MARV by(More)
During 5 months in 2004-2005, buffalopoxvirus infection, confirmed by virus isolation and limited nucleic acid sequencing, spread between 5 burns units in Karachi, Pakistan. The outbreak was related to movement of patients between units. Control measures reduced transmission, but sporadic cases continued due to the admission of new patients with(More)
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals resulting in considerable economic losses due to death and abortions among infected livestock. RVF also affects humans with clinical symptoms ranging from an influenza-like illness to a hemorrhagic fever. Over the past years, RVF virus (RVFV) has caused severe outbreaks in livestock(More)