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The in vivo relationship between the reservoir effect of the stratum corneum and the percutaneous absorption was established in both human volunteers and hairless rats. Four doses of [ring-14C]benzoic acid, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 nmol, were applied on 1 cm2 either on the external side of the human arm or on the back of the rat, for 30 min. In both human(More)
A relationship between stratum corneum reservoir function and percutaneous absorption has been established in the hairless rat. Two hundred nanomoles of 10 substances that have a wide range of chemical structures were topically applied for 30 min and the total body distribution was measured after 96 h. The quantity of substance present in the stratum(More)
The relation existing in vivo between the reservoir function of the stratum corneum following a 30-min application time and the total percutaneous absorption of molecules applied for a longer time was studied on hairless rats. One thousand nanomoles of 4 radiolabeled molecules (theophylline, nicotinic acid, acetyl salicylic acid, benzoic acid) were applied(More)
A monitoring programme was established in order to support community-based seaweed farming in south-west Madagascar by providing scientific information on the effects of physico-chemical and health factors influencing the growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii). Six aquaculture site configurations were studied. These consisted of high and low flow(More)
The effect of anatomic site on the in vivo relationship between the total penetration of four compounds and the amount of the compounds present in the stratum corneum at the end of application was studied in humans. For each anatomic site, 1,000 nmol of 14C-radiolabeled benzoic acid, benzoic acid sodium salt, caffeine, or acetylsalicylic acid was applied to(More)
The metabolism of xenobiotics by the epidermis can be studied in vitro by using keratinocyte cultures. We present a simple and rapid method for determining the activity of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes (ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase, ECOD, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD) in intact cultured human keratinocytes. Using this method, we studied the(More)
The influence of nine vehicles on in vivo percutaneous absorption of benzoic acid has been studied in the hairless rat. Although the vehicles used were simple in composition, the total amount of benzoic acid which penetrated varied by a factor of 50. A weak relationship was found between penetration of benzoic acid and its maximum solubility in the(More)