Learn More
AMPA-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory transmission at many central synapses, and rapid desensitization of these receptors can shape the decay of synaptic currents and limit the fidelity of high-frequency synaptic transmission. Here we use a combination of fast glutamate application protocols and kinetic simulations to determine how AMPA(More)
At central excitatory synapses, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which have a high affinity for glutamate, produce a slowly rising synaptic current in response to a single transmitter pulse and an additional current after a second, closely timed stimulus. Here we show, by examining the kinetics of transmitter binding and channel gating in(More)
Glutamate binds to AMPA receptors within a deep cleft between two globular protein domains (domains 1 and 2). Once glutamate binds, the cleft closes, and agonist-bound structures of the isolated ligand binding core suggest that closure of the binding cleft is sufficiently complete that it essentially prevents ligand dissociation. There is also considerable(More)
Several factors contribute to the shape of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in CNS neurons, among them the kinetics of presynaptic release, transmitter clearance, and the properties and distribution of postsynaptic receptors. The decays of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs at rat cerebellar mossy fibre-granule cell (MF-gc) synapses follow a(More)
BACKGROUND The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be inserted into the middle of another protein to produce a functional, fluorescent fusion protein. Finding permissive sites for insertion, however, can be difficult. Here we describe a transposon-based approach for rapidly creating libraries of GFP fusion proteins. RESULTS We tested our(More)
Video watermarking systems operating directly in the compressed bit stream are receiving increasing interest due to their ease of integration into existing content delivery workflows. Such algorithms, however, usually involve a strong dependency to the underlying video codec. In other words, the throughput of the system, e.g. the embedding rate, is heavily(More)
— In an H.264 video encoder, the important task of intra coding is performed in the residual domain after a spatial transform has been applied to the block data. Although the intra prediction is very efficient and shows the ability to capture some orientations of the image, after this spatial prediction the intra residual may still show regular structures.(More)
In this industrial exhibit, Technicolor will showcase various technologies developed to protect digital audio-visual material all along the media value chain, from production to distribution, including forensics services in case pirated content is detected. The exhibit will be organized around Technicolor's proprietary technologies in video fingerprinting(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors are tetrameric ion channels that mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. When agonists occupy the binding domain of individual receptor subunits, this domain closes, triggering rearrangements that couple agonist binding to channel opening. Here we compare the kinetic behavior of GluR2 channels(More)