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TLR have a crucial role in the detection of microbial infection in mammals. Until recently, most investigations on TLR have focused on cells of the innate immune system and on the role of TLR in the initiation of antigen-specific responses following recognition of microbial products by APC. Here, we report that murine T cells express TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, TLR7(More)
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of natural killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we found that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR was activated and boosted bioenergetic metabolism after exposure of NK cells to high concentrations of IL-15, whereas low(More)
Mature dendritic cells (DCs) have the capacity to induce efficient primary T cell response and effector cell differentiation. Thus, these cells are a major tool in the design of various immunotherapeutic protocols. We have tested the capacity of different subsets of matured DCs pulsed with a peptide to induce the differentiation of naive CD8 T cells into(More)
The anti-proliferative effect of Bcl-2 acts mainly at the level of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Deletions and point mutations in the bcl-2 gene show that the anti-proliferative activity of Bcl-2, can in some cases, be dissociated from its anti-apoptotic function. This indicates that the effect of Bcl-2 on cell cycle progression can be a direct effect(More)
Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells are a separate lineage of T lymphocytes with innate effector functions. They express an invariant TCR specific for lipids presented by CD1d and their development and effector differentiation rely on a unique gene expression program. We asked whether this program includes microRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene(More)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with an important role in the early defense against intracellular pathogens and against tumors. Like other immune cells, almost every aspects of their biology are regulated by cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-15 is pivotal for their development, homeostasis, and activation. Moreover, numerous other activating or(More)
The efficiency of CD8 memory response relies partially on the modification of cellular functional capacities. To identify effector functions that can be modified following priming, we have compared the chemokines produced by naive and memory CD8 T cells. Our results show that in contrast to naive cells, resting memory CD8 T cells contain high levels of(More)
Most memory CD8 T cell subsets that have been hitherto defined are generated in response to infectious pathogens. In this study, we have characterized the CD8 T cells that survive priming conditions, devoid of pathogen-derived danger signals. In both a TCR-transgenic model and a model of contact hypersensitivity, we show that the priming of naive CD8 T(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) signals can elicit full activation with acquisition of effector functions or a state of anergy. Here, we ask whether microRNAs affect the interpretation of TCR signaling. We find that Dicer-deficient CD4 T cells fail to correctly discriminate between activating and anergy-inducing stimuli and produce IL-2 in the absence of(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major immunosuppressive cytokine that maintains immune homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity through its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in various immune cell types. We provide genetic, pharmacologic, and biochemical evidence that a critical target of TGF-β signaling in mouse and human natural(More)