Antoine Giraud

Learn More
We have shown that bacterial mutation rates change during the experimental colonization of the mouse gut. A high mutation rate was initially beneficial because it allowed faster adaptation, but this benefit disappeared once adaptation was achieved. Mutator bacteria accumulated mutations that, although neutral in the mouse gut, are often deleterious in(More)
By using a panel of 603 commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella isolates, we showed that mutation rates of strains vary considerably among different ecotypes. Uropathogenic strains had the highest frequency of mutators, while strains from patients with bacteremia had the lowest mutation rates. No correlation between the mutation rates and(More)
Bacteria with elevated mutation rates are frequently found among natural isolates. This is probably because of their ability to generate genetic variability, the substrate for natural selection. However, such high mutation rates can lead to the loss of vital functions. The evolution of bacterial populations may happen through alternating periods of high and(More)
The capacity of non-pathogenic enteric bacteria to induce a pro-inflammatory response is under debate in terms of its effect on the symbiosis between the mammalian host and its commensal gut microflora. Activation of NF-kappaB and induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL-20 by the commensal Escherichia coli strain MG1655 were first studied in vitro in the(More)
We show in a gnotobiotic mouse model that, in addition to direct selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, some antibiotic treatments also select for mutator alleles. Because of these mutator alleles' high mutation rates, the initial treatment failure increases the probability of failures in subsequent treatments with other drugs.
While pleiotropic adaptive mutations are thought to be central for evolution, little is known on the downstream molecular effects allowing adaptation to complex ecologically relevant environments. Here we show that Escherichia coli MG1655 adapts rapidly to the intestine of germ-free mice by single point mutations in EnvZ/OmpR two-component signal(More)
To study the role of mutator bacteria in the evolution of bacterial populations, we followed the impact of the mutation rate of Escherichia coli strains in the colonisation of the gut of axenic mice and the evolution of the mutation rate of bacterial populations living in the gut. We show that mutator bacteria have an advantage during the colonization. This(More)