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From the formation of animal flocks to the emergence of coordinated motion in bacterial swarms, populations of motile organisms at all scales display coherent collective motion. This consistent behaviour strongly contrasts with the difference in communication abilities between the individuals. On the basis of this universal feature, it has been proposed(More)
Today, more and more compact converters with high current rates are required. The thermal environment is a key point to meet these requirements: the heat sink must be integrated as close as possible from heat sources. Liquid-cooled microchannel heat sinks are very efficient and well adapted to the cooling of power components. Thus, a high performance micro(More)
Currently the thermal losses of power electronic devices like IGBTs are increasing. At the same time, their sizes are decreasing. Consequently heat sinks have to dissipate very large heat flux densities. Therefore the thermal environment is a main issue in their performance and reliability. In order to improve heat transfers, materials with high thermal(More)
We combine technical, experimental, and theoretical efforts to investigate the collective dynamics of artificial microcilia in a viscous fluid. We take advantage of soft lithography and colloidal self-assembly to devise microcarpets made of hundreds of slender magnetic rods. This novel experimental setup is used to investigate the dynamics of extended cilia(More)
Coherent vortical motion has been reported in a wide variety of populations including living organisms (bacteria, fishes, human crowds) and synthetic active matter (shaken grains, mixtures of biopolymers), yet a unified description of the formation and structure of this pattern remains lacking. Here we report the self-organization of motile colloids into a(More)
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