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Previous data on the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) range from 45% to 90%. The present multicenter study aimed to provide data on the prevalence of smell loss in a large sample of PD patients from three independent populations. Olfactory sensitivity was tested in 400 patients from Australia, Germany, and The Netherlands by(More)
Olfactory dysfunction is a prominent symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) and found in about 70-100% of patients. In earlier studies significant loss of olfactory function seemed to be unrelated to disease duration, did not correlate with motor function, and was uninfluenced by antiparkinsonian medication. We suggest that the increase of dopaminergic cells(More)
Recent studies support the idea of olfactory dysfunction as a very early sign of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Aim of the present study was to clinically follow-up patients with idiopathic hyposmia to find out the percentage of patients developing IPD after 4 years time. At baseline, olfactory tests had been combined with transcranial sonography of(More)
BACKGROUND Impairment of olfactory function is a well recognized nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson’s disease(PD). The aim of this investigation was to determine if the MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline can improve olfaction in PD patients. METHODS Thirty-four PD patients participated in this single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled,double-blind(More)
BACKGROUND Although widely used in healthy subjects and patients with olfactory loss, the significance of changes of scores from validated olfactory tests is unknown. AIM AND METHODS The aim of the present study was to relate the self-assigned changes of olfactory function in terms of "better," "unchanged," and "worse" in patients with smell disorders(More)
The "Sniffin' Sticks" test kit is a validated and commonly used tool for assessment of olfactory function in subjects with normal sense of smell and in individuals with smell loss. That test incorporates subtests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. To gain higher subtest reproducibility, tests on odor discrimination and odor(More)
OBJECTIVE Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory(More)
The present study aimed to investigate whether side differences in olfactory bulb (OB) volume correlate to respective differences in olfactory function. In a total of 164 healthy volunteers volumetric measures of the OBs were performed plus lateralized measurements of odor thresholds and odor discrimination. Side differences were defined as 10% difference(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the influence of the number of stimuli on signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of CSERP. METHODS CSERP from 20 normosmic subjects were obtained in response to stimulation with two olfactory (H(2)S and PEA) and a trigeminal (CO(2)) stimulant. For each of these odors, 160 stimuli were delivered into the right nostril (duration 200ms, mean(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Orthonasal olfaction is severely altered in PD patients. Retronasal olfactory function has been shown to be preserved under certain conditions even in the absence of orthonasal function. This study was undertaken to investigate retronasal versus orthonasal olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD). STUDY DESIGN Prospective(More)