Anthony W Purcell

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Members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily have important functions in immunity and inflammation. Recently linear ubiquitin chains assembled by a complex containing HOIL-1 and HOIP (also known as RBCK1 and RNF31, respectively) were implicated in TNF signalling, yet their relevance in vivo remained uncertain. Here we identify SHARPIN as(More)
Antigen-presenting molecules, encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and CD1 family, bind peptide- and lipid-based antigens, respectively, for recognition by T cells. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans that are activated by an antigen(s) bound to the MHC class I-like(More)
The loading of MHC class I molecules with their peptide cargo is undertaken by a multimolecular peptide loading complex within the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that MHC class I molecules can optimize their peptide repertoire over time and that this process is dependent on tapasin. Optimization of the peptide repertoire is both quantitatively and(More)
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are highly polymorphic proteins that initiate immunity by presenting pathogen-derived peptides to T cells. HLA polymorphisms mostly map to the antigen-binding cleft, thereby diversifying the repertoire of self-derived and pathogen-derived peptide antigens selected by different HLA allotypes. A growing number of(More)
The use of peptides as therapeutics is experiencing renewed enthusiasm owing to advances in delivery, stability and design. Moreover, there is a growing emphasis on the use of peptides in vaccine design as insights into tissue-specific processing of the immunogenic epitopes of proteins and the discovery of unusually long cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes(More)
The major cause of sea-level change during ice ages is the exchange of water between ice and ocean and the planet's dynamic response to the changing surface load. Inversion of ∼1,000 observations for the past 35,000 y from localities far from former ice margins has provided new constraints on the fluctuation of ice volume in this interval. Key results are:(More)
We have examined the basis for immunodominant or "public" TCR usage in an antiviral CTL response. Residues encoded by each of the highly selected genetic elements of an immunodominant clonotype recognizing Epstein-Barr virus were critical to the antigen specificity of the receptor. Upon recognizing antigen, the immunodominant TCR undergoes extensive(More)
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called 'autotransporters' have long been thought to(More)
HLA class I polymorphism creates diversity in epitope specificity and T cell repertoire. We show that HLA polymorphism also controls the choice of Ag presentation pathway. A single amino acid polymorphism that distinguishes HLA-B*4402 (Asp116) from B*4405 (Tyr116) permits B*4405 to constitutively acquire peptides without any detectable incorporation into(More)
Unusually long major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted epitopes are important in immunity, but their 'bulged' conformation represents a potential obstacle to alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR)-MHC class I docking. To elucidate how such recognition is achieved while still preserving MHC restriction, we have determined here the structure of a(More)