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All reef-forming corals depend on the photosynthesis performed by their algal symbiont, and such corals are therefore restricted to the photic zone. The intensity of light in this zone declines over several orders of magnitude--from high and damaging levels at the surface to extreme shade conditions at the lower limit. The ability of corals to tolerate this(More)
Shallow ponds with rapidly photosynthesising cyanobacteria or eukaryotic algae are used for growing biotechnology feedstock and have been proposed for biofuel production but a credible model to predict the productivity of a column of phytoplankton in such ponds is lacking. Oxygen electrodes and Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometer technology were(More)
The cyanobacterium known as Acaryochloris marina is a unique phototroph that uses chlorophyll d as its principal light-harvesting pigment instead of chlorophyll a, the form commonly found in plants, algae and other cyanobacteria; this means that it depends on far-red light for photosynthesis. Here we demonstrate photosynthetic activity in Acaryochloris-like(More)
Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterize(More)
Photolithotrophs are divided between those that use water as their electron donor (Cyanobacteria and the photosynthetic eukaryotes) and those that use a different electron donor (the anoxygenic photolithotrophs, all of them Bacteria). Photolithotrophs with the most reduced genomes have more genes than do the corresponding chemoorganotrophs, and the(More)
Coral cell cultures made from reef-building scleractinian corals have the potential to aid in the pursuit of understanding of the cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis. Various methods have previously been described for the production of cell cultures in vitro with a range of success and longevity. In this study, viable tissue spheroids containing host tissue(More)
Coral surface temperature was investigated with multiple temperature sensors mounted on hemispherical and branching corals under (a) artificial lighting and controlled flow; (b) natural sunlight and controlled flow; and (c) in situ conditions in a shallow lagoon, under naturally fluctuating irradiance, water flow, and temperature. Under high irradiance and(More)
Elevated temperatures in combination with moderate to high irradiance are known to cause bleaching events in scleractinian corals, characterised by damage to photosystem II (PSII). Photoprotective mechanisms of the symbiont can reduce the excitation pressure impinging upon PSII. In the bleaching sensitive species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora(More)
The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with(More)
BACKGROUND The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Growth of new segments was visualised by epifluorescence and(More)