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Lifetime milk production is maximized when dairycows are pregnant during approximately 70% of eachlactation. Between lactations, a nonlactating period isnecessary for optimal milk production in the succeeding lactation. With cessation of milking, alveolarstructure is largely maintained and little or no loss ofcells occurs. However, increased apoptosis and(More)
This investigation evaluated mammary cell loss and replacement during lactation and the impact of administration of bST on these processes. During lactation, a gradual decrease in number of mammary epithelial cells within the mammary glands occurs and largely accounts for the decline in milk production with advancing lactation. This decrease is not(More)
Identification of estrogen-responsive genes is an essential step toward understanding mechanisms of estrogen action during mammary gland development. To identify these genes, 16 prepubertal heifers were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with ovarian status (intact or ovariectomized) as the first factor and estrogen treatment as the second (control or(More)
Stem cells appear to retain labeled DNA for extended periods because of their selective segregation of template DNA strands during mitosis. In this study, proliferating cells in the prepubertal bovine mammary gland were labeled using five daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Five weeks later, BrdU-labeled mammary epithelial cells were still(More)
Mammary stem cells provide for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and are therefore of considerable interest as determinants of productivity and efficiency of dairy animals and as targets of carcinogenesis in humans. Xanthosine treatment was previously shown to promote expansion of hepatic stem cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to(More)
The effect of pregnancy on postweaning mammary gland involution was investigated in mice. On the third day after forced weaning at Lactation Day 10, the apoptotic index was 56% lower in mammary tissue of mice that were pregnant at the time of weaning than in nonpregnant mice. Conversely, the bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index was increased sevenfold in(More)
One hundred-sixteen Holstein heifers (mean BW, 175 kg) were randomly assigned to diets of alfalfa silage or corn silage and were fed to gain approximately 725 or 950 g/d in order to study the influence of prepubertal diet and rate of gain on mammary growth and milk production. Blood was collected before puberty for hormone determination, and 8 heifers per(More)
Effects of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) on mammary tissue of lactating cows were studied in vitro. The PMN were isolated from mammary glands of nulliparous heifers given an injection of 5 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Mammary tissue was obtained from noninfected quarters of 5 lactating Holstein cows and was cultured in(More)
Ovaries are absolutely required for development of the mammary parenchyma (PAR) in cattle, reflecting estrogen-dependent epithelial cell proliferation. However, the estrogen receptor (ER) that mediates the mammary estrogen effects, ERalpha, is absent in proliferating epithelial cells. In the mouse, this discrepancy is explained in part by the ability of the(More)
Cows may provide insights into mammary development that are not easily obtained using mouse models. Mammary growth in control and estrogen-treated calves was investigated to evaluate general patterns of proliferation and relationship to estrogen receptor (ER) expression. After in vivo labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), serial histological sections of(More)