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Identification of estrogen-responsive genes is an essential step toward understanding mechanisms of estrogen action during mammary gland development. To identify these genes, 16 prepubertal heifers were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with ovarian status (intact or ovariectomized) as the first factor and estrogen treatment as the second (control or(More)
MicroRNAs are small approximately 22 nucleotide-long noncoding RNAs capable of controlling gene expression by inhibiting translation. Alignment of human microRNA stem-loop sequences (mir) against a recent draft sequence assembly of the bovine genome resulted in identification of 334 predicted bovine mir. We sequenced five tissue-specific cDNA libraries(More)
The incidence and severity of mastitis can be high during the period of transition from pregnancy to lactation when dairy cattle are susceptible to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of mastitis by modifying the expression of proinflammatory genes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the relationship between(More)
The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23,632 bovine genes were(More)
Understanding the process of carcinogenesis is key to developing therapies which might interrupt or reverse tumor onset and progression. Cell growth and death signals are dependent not only upon molecular mechanisms within a cell but also upon external stimuli such as hormones, cell - cell signaling, and extracellular matrix. Mouse models can be used to(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but suggested pathways include increased mammary(More)
Steroid receptors are key transcriptional regulators of mammary growth, development and lactation. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), progesterone receptor (PR), and estrogen-related receptor alpha-1 (ERRbeta) have been evaluated in bovine mammary gland. The ERRalpha is an orphan receptor that, in other species and tissues,(More)
Impaired polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) function around parturition has been associated with increased clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Rolling and attachment of PMN to the endothelium is the first step in the recruitment process and is accomplished by interaction between L-selectin on PMN and its ligand on endothelial cells. Furthermore,(More)
Mammary stem cells are critical for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and therefore are of considerable interest for improving productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine treatment has been demonstrated to promote expansion of putative mammary stem cells in vivo, and hepatic and hair follicle stem cells in vitro. In the latter,(More)