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Identification of estrogen-responsive genes is an essential step toward understanding mechanisms of estrogen action during mammary gland development. To identify these genes, 16 prepubertal heifers were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with ovarian status (intact or ovariectomized) as the first factor and estrogen treatment as the second (control or(More)
Mammary stem cells provide for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and are therefore of considerable interest as determinants of productivity and efficiency of dairy animals and as targets of carcinogenesis in humans. Xanthosine treatment was previously shown to promote expansion of hepatic stem cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to(More)
Stem cells appear to retain labeled DNA for extended periods because of their selective segregation of template DNA strands during mitosis. In this study, proliferating cells in the prepubertal bovine mammary gland were labeled using five daily injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Five weeks later, BrdU-labeled mammary epithelial cells were still(More)
The leukocytes in milk consist of lymphocytes, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and macrophages. Lymphocytes together with antigen-presenting cells function in the generation of an effective immune response. Lymphocytes can be divided into two distinct subsets, T- and B-lymphocytes, that differ in function and protein products. The professional(More)
One hundred-sixteen Holstein heifers (mean BW, 175 kg) were randomly assigned to diets of alfalfa silage or corn silage and were fed to gain approximately 725 or 950 g/d in order to study the influence of prepubertal diet and rate of gain on mammary growth and milk production. Blood was collected before puberty for hormone determination, and 8 heifers per(More)
Prior to puberty, elevated nutrient intake has been shown to negatively affect prepubertal mammary development in the heifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased nutrient intake on mammary development in Holstein heifers at multiple body weights from birth through puberty. Specifically, this study evaluated the effects of(More)
The effect of pregnancy on postweaning mammary gland involution was investigated in mice. On the third day after forced weaning at Lactation Day 10, the apoptotic index was 56% lower in mammary tissue of mice that were pregnant at the time of weaning than in nonpregnant mice. Conversely, the bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index was increased sevenfold in(More)
A persistent lactation is dependent on maintaining the number and activity of milk secreting cells with advancing lactation. When dairy cows are milked twice daily, the increase in milk yield from parturition to peak lactation is due to increased secretory activity per cell rather than to accretion of additional epithelial cells. After peak lactation,(More)
Cows may provide insights into mammary development that are not easily obtained using mouse models. Mammary growth in control and estrogen-treated calves was investigated to evaluate general patterns of proliferation and relationship to estrogen receptor (ER) expression. After in vivo labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), serial histological sections of(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1) stimulates proliferation of mammary epithelial cells, using the bovine mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T as a model. IGF1 significantly up- or down-regulated the expression of 155 genes in MAC-T cells. Among the most significantly suppressed was the gene(More)