Anthony V. Capuco

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This investigation evaluated mammary cell loss and replacement during lactation and the impact of administration of bST on these processes. During lactation, a gradual decrease in number of mammary epithelial cells within the mammary glands occurs and largely accounts for the decline in milk production with advancing lactation. This decrease is not(More)
Lifetime milk production is maximized when dairycows are pregnant during approximately 70% of eachlactation. Between lactations, a nonlactating period isnecessary for optimal milk production in the succeeding lactation. With cessation of milking, alveolarstructure is largely maintained and little or no loss ofcells occurs. However, increased apoptosis and(More)
Mammary stem cells provide for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and are therefore of considerable interest as determinants of productivity and efficiency of dairy animals and as targets of carcinogenesis in humans. Xanthosine treatment was previously shown to promote expansion of hepatic stem cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to(More)
A persistent lactation is dependent on maintaining the number and activity of milk secreting cells with advancing lactation. When dairy cows are milked twice daily, the increase in milk yield from parturition to peak lactation is due to increased secretory activity per cell rather than to accretion of additional epithelial cells. After peak lactation,(More)
Influence of the dry period on mammary growth was studied using multiparous Holstein cows. Sixty days before expected parturition, 13 cows were dried off, and another 13 cows were milked throughout the prepartum period. Lactating cows and dry cows were slaughtered at 53, 35, 20, and 7 d prepartum. Total mammary parenchymal DNA increased twofold from 53 to 7(More)
Identification of estrogen-responsive genes is an essential step toward understanding mechanisms of estrogen action during mammary gland development. To identify these genes, 16 prepubertal heifers were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with ovarian status (intact or ovariectomized) as the first factor and estrogen treatment as the second (control or(More)
Prior to puberty, elevated nutrient intake has been shown to negatively affect prepubertal mammary development in the heifer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased nutrient intake on mammary development in Holstein heifers at multiple body weights from birth through puberty. Specifically, this study evaluated the effects of(More)
One hundred-sixteen Holstein heifers (mean BW, 175 kg) were randomly assigned to diets of alfalfa silage or corn silage and were fed to gain approximately 725 or 950 g/d in order to study the influence of prepubertal diet and rate of gain on mammary growth and milk production. Blood was collected before puberty for hormone determination, and 8 heifers per(More)
Increased milking frequency (IMF) at the beginning of lactation has been shown to increase milk yield not only during IMF but also after its cessation. The objectives of this experiment evaluated the effects of increased milking frequency initiated during early lactation on mammary growth and effects on milk yield (MY). Thirty-one cows were divided into(More)
The effect of pregnancy on postweaning mammary gland involution was investigated in mice. On the third day after forced weaning at Lactation Day 10, the apoptotic index was 56% lower in mammary tissue of mice that were pregnant at the time of weaning than in nonpregnant mice. Conversely, the bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index was increased sevenfold in(More)