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Plasmids, bacteriophages, and pathogenicity islands are genomic additions that contribute to the evolution of bacterial pathogens. For example, Shigella spp., the causative agents of bacillary(More)
OspF, OspG and IpaH(9.8) are type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors of Shigella flexneri that downregulate the host innate immune response. OspF modifies mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways(More)
Mutations in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Shigella spp. result in attenuation of the bacteria in both in vitro and in vivo models of virulence, although the precise block in pathogenesis is not(More)