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There are very few population-based data on childhood blindness in the Horn of Africa. In Sekoru district, Ethiopia, we performed a whole-of-population cross-sectional survey using the key informant method to determine the magnitude and causes of childhood blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye) and severe visual impairment (SVI;(More)
Trachoma is an ocular disease caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading cause of infectious blindness globally, responsible for 5.9 million cases of blindness. Although trachomatous blindness is untreatable, it is eminently possible to prevent and the World Health Organization promotes the use of the SAFE strategy (surgery(More)
PURPOSE Trachoma remains a leading cause of blindness. Determining the most effective antibiotic treatment strategy is essential for the success of country-based trachoma control programs. METHODS Baseline and 2-month follow-up examinations were performed in a trachoma-hyperendemic village. All residents were offered azithromycin for trachoma after(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections, causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed phylogeny based on whole-genome sequencing of representative strains of C. trachomatis from both(More)
We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen's tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical(More)
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, and responsible for the loss of an estimated 1.3 million disability-adjusted life years, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. Geographically, trachoma is a greater public health risk in dry, dusty, and hot settings, where poor, rural communities suffer a disproportionate burden of disease.(More)
BACKGROUND A trachoma control programme was started in southern Sudan in 2001. We did a 3-year evaluation to quantify uptake of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) interventions, and to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and unclean faces. METHODS Cross-sectional surveys, including clinical assessment of(More)
The distribution of active trachoma in Kahe Mpya, Tanzania, an endemic village of approximately 1000 people, was mapped spatially and analysed for associated risk factors and evidence of clustering. An association between distance to water source and active disease was demonstrated, although this was reduced after accounting for the lack of independence(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotics are an important part of WHO's strategy to eliminate trachoma as a blinding disease by 2020. At present, who needs to be treated is unclear. We aimed to establish the burden of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in three trachoma-endemic communities in Tanzania and The Gambia with real-time quantitative PCR. METHODS Conjunctival swabs(More)