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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, 1) regulates vascular barrier and lymphoid development, as well as lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, by activating high-affinity S1P1 receptors. We used reversible chemical probes (i) to gain mechanistic insights into S1P systems organization not accessible through genetic manipulations and (ii) to investigate their(More)
Allergic airway inflammation is associated with activation of innate immune pathways by allergens. Acute exacerbations of asthma are commonly associated with rhinovirus infection. Here we show that, after exposure to house dust mite (HDM) or rhinovirus infection, the E3 ubiquitin ligase midline 1 (MID1) is upregulated in mouse bronchial epithelium. HDM(More)
BACKGROUND The synthetic tripeptide arsenical 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets the mitochondria of actively dividing but not quiescent endothelial cells, arresting their proliferation and causing apoptosis. Normal endothelial cells are much more sensitive to GSAO than tumor cells. To(More)
The sphingolipids are one of the major lipid families in eukaryotes, incorporating a diverse array of structural variants that exert a powerful influence over cell fate and physiology. Increased expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), which catalyses the synthesis of the pro-survival, pro-angiogenic metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is well(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly-progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic failure. A pathological hallmark of MSA is the presence of α-synuclein deposits in oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing support cells of the brain. Brain pathology and in vitro studies indicate that myelin(More)
Cell death plays a central role in normal physiology and in disease. Common to apoptotic and necrotic cell death is the eventual loss of plasma membrane integrity. We have produced a small organoarsenical compound, 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino)phenylarsonous acid, that rapidly accumulates in the cytosol of dying cells coincident with loss of plasma(More)
The new immunosuppressant FTY720 (fingolimod), an analog of the endogenous lipid sphingosine, induces transient lymphopenia through the sequestration of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. Phosphorylation of FTY720 by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) yields the active metabolite FTY720-phosphate (FTY-P), which induces lymphopenia through agonism of the(More)
Ceramide kinase and its product ceramide 1-phosphate have been implicated in cellular proliferation and survival, activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), mast cell degranulation, and phagocytosis. Current assays for ceramide kinase activity employ [(32)P]ATP, with separation of labeled product from excess ATP by organic extraction and thin-layer(More)
Sphingolipid metabolites have emerged playing important roles in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence showing a pathogenic role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in hepatocellular steatosis. We found that levels of(More)
Current lipidomic profiling methods rely mainly on MS to identify unknown lipids within a complex sample. We describe a new approach, involving LC×MS/MS (liquid chromatography×tandem MS) analysis of sphingolipids based on both mass and hydrophobicity, and use this method to characterize the SM (sphingomyelin), ceramide and GalCer (galactosylceramide)(More)