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BACKGROUND The synthetic tripeptide arsenical 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets the mitochondria of actively dividing but not quiescent endothelial cells, arresting their proliferation and causing apoptosis. Normal endothelial cells are much more sensitive to GSAO than tumor cells. To(More)
The new immunosuppressant FTY720 (fingolimod), an analog of the endogenous lipid sphingosine, induces transient lymphopenia through the sequestration of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. Phosphorylation of FTY720 by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) yields the active metabolite FTY720-phosphate (FTY-P), which induces lymphopenia through agonism of the(More)
The sphingolipids are one of the major lipid families in eukaryotes, incorporating a diverse array of structural variants that exert a powerful influence over cell fate and physiology. Increased expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), which catalyses the synthesis of the pro-survival, pro-angiogenic metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is well(More)
BACKGROUND The greatest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the ϵ4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE regulates secretion of the potent neuroprotective signaling lipid Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). S1P is derived by phosphorylation of sphingosine, catalysed by sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2), and SphK1 positively(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly-progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic failure. A pathological hallmark of MSA is the presence of α-synuclein deposits in oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing support cells of the brain. Brain pathology and in vitro studies indicate that myelin(More)
Most patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) respond well to standard chemotherapy-based treatments. However a significant proportion of patients, particularly adult patients, relapse with the majority dying of leukemia. FTY720 is an immunosuppressive drug that was recently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and is currently under(More)
Members of the ABCA (ATP-binding cassette subfamily A) family are characterized by their ability to transport lipids across cellular membranes and regulate lipid homoeostasis in the brain and peripheral tissues. ABCA8 is a little-known member of this subfamily that was originally cloned from human brain libraries and has no known function. In an effort to(More)
BACKGROUND In vivo phosphorylation of sphingosine analogs with their ensuing binding and activation of their cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors is regarded as the main immunomodulatory mechanism of this new class of drugs. Prophylactic treatment with sphingosine analogs interferes with experimental asthma by impeding the migration of dendritic(More)
In asthma, excessive bronchial narrowing associated with thickening of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) causes respiratory distress. Numerous pharmacological agents prevent experimental airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when delivered prophylactically. However, most fail to resolve this feature after disease is instated. Although sphingosine analogs are(More)
Constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), via co-expression of its ligand or by genetic mutation, is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we show that FLT3 activation inhibits the activity of the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Using BaF3 cells transduced with wildtype or(More)