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Mapping the distribution of phylogenetically distinct bacteria in natural environments is of primary importance to an understanding of ecological dynamics. Here we present a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the analysis of higher taxa composition in natural communities that advances previously available methods by allowing quantification of several taxa(More)
Fouling species produce adhesive polymers during the settlement, adhesion and colonization of new surfaces in the marine environment. The present paper tests the hypothesis that enzymes of the appropriate specificity may prevent biofouling by hydrolysing these adhesive polymers. Seventeen commercially available enzyme preparations designed originally for(More)
Immunological investigation has revealed that a settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC), which induces cypris settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, is synthesized during larval development and accumulates in the cypris larva. We previously purified the SIPC from adult B. amphitrite, which was active when bound to a substratum. The SIPC is a(More)
A critical phase in the life cycle of sessile benthic marine invertebrates is locating a suitable substratum for settlement. For barnacles, it is the lecithotrophic cypris larva that makes this plankto-benthic transition. In exploring possible substrata for settlement, the cyprid leaves behind 'footprints' of a proteinaceous secretion that reportedly(More)
From macro- to nanoscales, adhesion phenomena are all-pervasive in nature yet remain poorly understood. In recent years, studies of biological adhesion mechanisms, terrestrial and marine, have provided inspiration for "biomimetic" adhesion strategies and important insights for the development of fouling-resistant materials. Although the focus of most(More)
The sesquiterpene hydroquinone avarol (1) was isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara, whereas the corresponding quinone, avarone (2), was obtained by oxidation of avarol, and the significantly more lipophilic compounds [3'-(p-chloro-phenyl)avarone (3), 3',4'-ethylenedithioavarone (4), 4'-isopropylthioavarone (5), 4'-tert-butylthioavarone (6),(More)
A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles(More)
Barnacles are prominent members of hard substratum benthic communities and their study has been important to advances in experimental ecology and contemporary ecological theory. Having recently characterized the cue to gregarious settlement of Balanus amphitrite, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC), we use two polyclonal antibodies to examine the(More)
In order to improve the genetic characterisation of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, normalised EST libraries for the developmental stages, viz. nauplius (a mix of instars I and II), cyprid and adult, were generated. The libraries were sequenced independently using 454 technologies and 575,666 reads were generated. For adults, 4843 unique isotigs were(More)
Many benthic marine invertebrates, like barnacles, have a planktonic larval stage whose primary purpose is dispersal. How these species colonize suitable substrata is fundamental to understanding their evolution, population biology, and wider community dynamics. Unlike larval dispersal, settlement occurs on a relatively small spatial scale and involves(More)