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The murine homologue of the previously identified human "pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor" (PBEF) gene coding for a putative cytokine has been identified by screening a subtractive library enriched in genes expressed in activated T lymphocytes. Unlike most cytokine genes known to date, the PBEF gene is ubiquitously expressed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid(More)
In addition to its well-known role as a coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions, the distinct role of NAD as a precursor for molecules involved in cell regulation has been clearly established. The involvement of NAD in these regulatory processes is based on its ability to function as a donor of ADP-ribose; NAD synthesis is therefore required to avoid(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) both self-renew and give rise to all blood cells for the lifetime of an individual. Xenogeneic mouse models are broadly used to study human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell biology in vivo. However, maintenance, differentiation, and function of human hematopoietic cells are suboptimal in these hosts. Thrombopoietin(More)
Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which(More)
To directly study complex human hemato-lymphoid system physiology and respective system-associated diseases in vivo, human-to-mouse xenotransplantation models for human blood and blood-forming cells and organs have been developed over the past three decades. We here review the fundamental requirements and the remarkable progress made over the past few years(More)
Transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells into severely immunocompromised newborn mice allows the development of a human hematopoietic and immune system in vivo. NOD/scid/γ(c)(-/-) (NSG) and BALB/c Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-) mice are the most commonly used mouse strains for this purpose and a number of studies have demonstrated the high value of these model(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper cells (T(H)17) are a recently identified CD4(+) T cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells. T(H)17 cells can drive antigen-specific autoimmune diseases and are considered the main population of pathogenic T cells driving experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the(More)
The mechanism by which cells undergo death determines whether dying cells trigger inflammatory responses or remain immunologically silent. Mitochondria play a central role in the induction of cell death, as well as in immune signaling pathways. Here, we identify a mechanism by which mitochondria and downstream proapoptotic caspases regulate the activation(More)
Mice with a functional human immune system have the potential to allow in vivo studies of human infectious diseases and to enable vaccine testing. To this end, mice need to fully support the development of human immune cells, allow infection with human pathogens, and be capable of mounting effective human immune responses. A major limitation of humanized(More)
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt)/pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)/visfatin is a protein displaying multiple functional properties. Originally described as a cytokine-like protein able to regulate B cell development, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism, this protein also plays an important role in NAD biosynthesis. To gain insight into(More)