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BACKGROUND Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been in the context of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. Our aim was to estimate the contributions of selected major(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide (modified release) plus other drugs as required to achieve a(More)
The MACHO collaboration has recently analyzed 2.1 years of photometric data for about 8.5 million stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This analysis has revealed 8 candidate microlensing events and a total microlensing optical depth of τmeas = 2.9 × 10 −7. This significantly exceeds the number of events (1.1) and the microlensing optical depth(More)
BACKGROUND Estimates of the disease burden due to multiple risk factors can show the potential gain from combined preventive measures. But few such investigations have been attempted, and none on a global scale. Our aim was to estimate the potential health benefits from removal of multiple major risk factors. METHODS We assessed the burden of disease and(More)
In 2005, a global goal of reducing chronic disease death rates by an additional 2% per year was established. Scaling up coverage of evidence-based interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals in low-income and middle-income countries could play a major part in reaching this goal. We aimed to estimate the number of deaths that(More)
Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability.In this paper, we discuss the(More)
This study sought to quantify the energy expenditure and physical activity associated with playing the "new generation" active and nonactive console-based video games in 21 children ages 10-14 years. Energy expenditure (kcal) derived from oxygen consumption (VO2) was continuously assessed while children played nonactive and active console video games.(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of blood pressure lowering treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease are well established. However, the extent to which these effects differ by baseline blood pressure, presence of comorbidities, or drug class is less clear. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these differences. METHOD(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking cessation programmes delivered via mobile phone text messaging show increases in self-reported quitting in the short term. We assessed the effect of an automated smoking cessation programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging on continuous abstinence, which was biochemically verified at 6 months. METHODS In this single-blind,(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effectiveness of a mobile phone text messaging smoking cessation programme. DESIGN Randomised controlled trial SETTING New Zealand PARTICIPANTS 1705 smokers from throughout New Zealand who wanted to quit, were aged over 15 years, and owned a mobile phone were randomised to an intervention group that received regular,(More)