Anthony Richard Bird

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Foods high in resistant starch have the potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. RNA interference was used to down-regulate the two different isoforms of starch-branching enzyme (SBE) II (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in wheat endosperm to raise its amylose content. Suppression of SBEIIb expression alone had no effect on(More)
Cell walls in commercially important cereals and grasses are characterized by the presence of (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans. These polysaccharides are beneficial constituents of human diets, where they can reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia, type II diabetes, obesity and colorectal cancer. The biosynthesis of cell wall (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans in the Poaceae is(More)
There is growing recognition of the role of diet and other environmental factors in modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota, which in turn can impact health. This narrative review explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to provide a general perspective of this broad area. Molecular technologies have(More)
The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Animal studies show that diets containing resistant starch (RS) at levels not achievable in the human diet result in lower body weight and/or adiposity in rodents. We aimed to determine whether RS dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) were(More)
Uterine, umbilical and, by difference, uteroplacental net uptakes of oxygen, glucose, lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate (uterine uptake only) were measured in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or severely undernourished for 8-20 d during late pregnancy. All animals were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a(More)
Starches are important as energy sources for humans and also for their interactions with the gut microflora throughout the digestive tact. Largely, those interactions promote human health. In the mouth, less gelatinised starches may lower risk of cariogensis. In the large bowel, starches which have escaped small intestinal digestion (resistant starch),(More)
Very low-carbohydrate diets are often used to promote weight loss, but their effects on bowel health and function are largely unknown. We compared the effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet with a high-carbohydrate, high-fibre, low-fat (HC) diet on indices of bowel health and function. In a parallel study design, ninety-one overweight and(More)
The purity of DNA extracted from faecal samples is a key issue in the sensitivity and usefulness of biological analyses such as PCR for infectious pathogens and non-pathogens. We have compared the relative efficacy of extraction of bacterial DNA (both Gram negative and positive origin) from faeces using four commercial kits (FastDNA kit, Bio 101; Nucleospin(More)
Feeding higher levels of dietary animal protein (as casein or red meat) increases colonic DNA damage and thins the colonic mucus barrier in rats. Feeding resistant starch (RS) reverses these changes and increases large bowel SCFA. The present study examined whether high dietary dairy (casein or whey) or plant (soya) proteins had similar adverse effects and(More)