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Many studies have reported variability data for tests of speech discrimination, and the disparate results of these studies have not been given a simple explanation. Arguments over the relative merits of 25- vs 50-word tests have ignored the basic mathematical properties inherent in the use of percentage scores. The present study models performance on(More)
An extensive corticofugal system extends from the auditory cortex toward subcortical nuclei along the auditory pathway. Corticofugal influences reach even into the inner ear via the efferents of the olivocochlear bundle, the medial branch of which modulates preneural sound amplification gain. This corticofugal system is thought to contribute to(More)
Rapid shallow granular free-surface flows develop in a wide range of industrial and geophysical flows, ranging from rotating kilns and blenders to rock-falls, snow slab-avalanches and debris-flows. Within these flows, grains of different sizes often separate out into inversely graded layers, with the large particles on top of the fines, by a process called(More)
Contralateral suppression of click evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) is widely used as a non-invasive measure of the activity of the (uncrossed) medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB). There is evidence that the uMOCB receives descending input from the cortex, potentially mediating top-down control during higher order processing. This study investigated(More)
The adaptation of the responses from the cochlear nerve and the auditory brainstem nuclei was studied using a burst of four clicks as the stimulus. Nine experimental conditions were obtained from three stimulus levels (60, 70 and 80 dB SL) and from three intervals between click in the burst (15, 24 and 32.5 msec). Six subjects were each tested three times(More)
T cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the containment of HIV-1 replication. Therefore, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 should be able to elicit high frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The highly attenuated poxvirus-based vaccine candidate, NYVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (NYVAC-SIV-gpe), has been shown to induce and/or(More)
OBJECTIVE This paper analyzes the fast and slow mechanisms of adaptation through a study of latencies and amplitudes on ABR recorded at high stimulation rates using the randomized stimulation and averaging (RSA) technique. METHODS The RSA technique allows a separate processing of auditory responses, and is used, in this study, to categorize responses(More)
The amplitude values of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, recorded from a large sample of neonates, were used to examine the asymmetry between ears tested and the differences due to the sex of the subject. Whilst the sex difference, with females having larger responses than males, has been a consistent finding in previous reports, the right/left ear(More)
An expression for the stress tensor near an external boundary of a discrete mechanical system is derived explicitly in terms of the constituents' degrees of freedom and interaction forces. Starting point is the exact and general coarse graining formulation presented by Goldhirsch in [I. which is consistent with the continuum equations everywhere but does(More)
The discrete particle method (DPM) is used to model granular flows down an inclined chute with varying basal roughness, thickness and inclination. We observe three major regimes: arresting flows, steady uniform flows and accelerating flows. For flows over a smooth base, other (quasi-steady) regimes are observed: for small inclinations the flow can be highly(More)