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BACKGROUND The Whitehall cohort studies (I and II) of British civil servants have identified sociodemographic, psychosocial, and biological risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). To identify mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to CHD, specific biological markers of stress are increasingly being measured. One marker linked to susceptibility to(More)
The emergence of resistance to antibacterial agents is a pressing concern for human health. New drugs to combat this problem are therefore in great demand, but as past experience indicates, the time for resistance to new drugs to develop is often short. Conventionally, antibacterial drugs have been developed on the basis of their ability to inhibit(More)
In order to determine which genes are involved in maintaining viability of 100-day stationary-phase bacteria and persistent bacteria after antibiotic treatment, we used a mini-DNA array to examine the transcription of 82 genes of M. tuberculosis in the 100-day stationary-phase cultures before and after rifampicin treatment. We found that the mRNA level of a(More)
The sigA and sigB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encode two sigma 70-like sigma factors of RNA polymerase. While transcription of the sigA gene is growth rate independent, sigB transcription is increased during entry into stationary phase. The sigA gene transcription is unresponsive to environmental stress but that of sigB is very responsive, more so(More)
AIMS Evidence is accumulating to support the hypothesis that the release of heat shock protein (Hsp)60 into the circulation is associated with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). As diabetes is a risk factor for CHD, it was of interest to determine Hsp60 blood levels in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients, some of whom had(More)
The world is running out of antibiotics. Between 1940 and 1962, more than 20 new classes of antibiotics were marketed. Since then, only two new classes have reached the market. Analogue development kept pace with the emergence of resistant bacteria until 10-20 years ago. Now, not enough analogues are reaching the market to stem the tide of antibiotic(More)
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has two chaperonin (Cpn60) proteins and one cochaperonin (Cpn10) protein. We show here that cpn60.2 and cpn10, but not cpn60.1, are essential for cell survival. A mutant lacking Cpn60.1 was indistinguishable from the wild-type organism in plate and broth culture and within murine macrophages,(More)
The bactericidal activities of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin were tested in three models of rifampin-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis persisters. Model 1 was a 100-day-old, unshaken, anaerobically adapted culture in which serial dilutions of the quinolones were incubated for 5 days and CFU counts were then done In(More)