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The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Animal studies show that diets containing resistant starch (RS) at levels not achievable in the human diet result in lower body weight and/or adiposity in rodents. We aimed to determine whether RS dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) were(More)
There is growing recognition of the role of diet and other environmental factors in modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota, which in turn can impact health. This narrative review explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to provide a general perspective of this broad area. Molecular technologies have(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Studies suggest that dietary fibre offers protection perhaps by increasing colonic fermentative production of butyrate. This study examined the importance of butyrate by investigating the effects of resistant starch (RS) and butyrylated-RS on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CRC in rats. Four groups (n(More)
Himalaya 292 (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) is a novel hull-less barley variety lacking activity of a key enzyme of starch synthesis giving a grain containing less total starch, more amylose and higher total dietary fibre. Animal trials have shown that Himalaya 292 contains more resistant starch and has greater positive impact on biomarkers of(More)
Resistant starch (RS), fed as high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB), opposes dietary protein-induced colonocyte DNA damage in rats. In this study, rats were fed Western-type diets moderate in fat (19%) and protein (20%) containing digestible starches [low amylose maize starch (LAMS) or low amylose whole wheat (LAW)] or RS [HAMS,(More)
Animal studies show that increasing large bowel butyrate concentration through ingestion of butyrylated or resistant starches opposes carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, which is consistent with population data linking greater fiber consumption with lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Butyrate has been shown to regulate the apoptotic response to DNA damage.(More)
Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which(More)
Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292 is a new barley cultivar with altered starch synthesis and less total starch but more amylose, resistant starch (RS) and total and soluble NSP including beta-glucan. To determine its nutritional potential, young pigs were fed diets containing stabilised wholegrain flours from either Himalaya 292, Namoi (a commercial(More)
Epidemiological studies have identified increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk with high red meat (HRM) intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake appears to be protective. In the present study, we examined whether a HRM diet increased rectal O(6)-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O(6)MeG) adduct levels in healthy human subjects, and whether butyrylated high-amylose(More)