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We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions,(More)
CONTEXT Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. OBJECTIVE To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error-dependent associative learning processes in a pharmacological functional(More)
BACKGROUND The Bispectral Index (BIS) is an electroencephalogram-derived measure of anesthetic depth. A closed-loop anesthesia system was built using BIS as the control variable, a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm, and a propofol target-controlled infusion system as the control actuator. Closed-loop performance was assessed in 10 adult(More)
BACKGROUND The default mode network consists of a set of functionally connected brain regions (posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex) maximally active in functional imaging studies under "no task" conditions. It has been argued that the posterior cingulate is important in consciousness/awareness, but previous(More)
BACKGROUND The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. AIM To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric interview. METHOD Ketamine (200 ng/ml) or placebo was(More)
BACKGROUND In a previous study we used the bispectral index (BIS) for automatic control of propofol anaesthesia, using a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm. As control was less than optimal in some patients, we revised the constants of the control algorithm. The aim of the current study was to measure the performance of the revised system(More)
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory processes, which may influence neuronal functioning either directly or through modulation of intraneuronal pathways, such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated pathway. To study the time course of post-surgical(More)
The use of ketamine infusion for sedation/analgesia in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy has not been described. The aims of this retrospective cohort study were to explore whether ketamine infusion for patients requiring ECMO therapy was associated with altered RASS scores, decreased concurrent sedative or opioid use, or(More)
BACKGROUND Although automated closed-loop control systems may improve quality of care, their safety must be proved under extreme control conditions. This study describes a simulation methodology to test automated controllers and its application in a comparison of two published controllers for Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided propofol administration. METHODS(More)