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We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions,(More)
CONTEXT Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. OBJECTIVE To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error-dependent associative learning processes in a pharmacological functional(More)
BACKGROUND The Bispectral Index (BIS) is an electroencephalogram-derived measure of anesthetic depth. A closed-loop anesthesia system was built using BIS as the control variable, a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm, and a propofol target-controlled infusion system as the control actuator. Closed-loop performance was assessed in 10 adult(More)
BACKGROUND The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. AIM To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric interview. METHOD Ketamine (200 ng/ml) or placebo was(More)
BACKGROUND The default mode network consists of a set of functionally connected brain regions (posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex) maximally active in functional imaging studies under "no task" conditions. It has been argued that the posterior cingulate is important in consciousness/awareness, but previous(More)
The symptoms of major psychotic illness are diverse and vary widely across individuals. Furthermore, the prepsychotic phase is indistinct, providing little indication of the precise pattern of symptoms that may subsequently emerge. Likewise, although in some individuals who have affected family members the occurrence of disease may be predicted, the(More)
BACKGROUND Healthy volunteers received low-dose target-controlled infusions (TCI) of ketamine controlled by the Domino model while cognitive function tests and functional neuroimaging were performed. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive performance of the Domino model during these studies, and compare it with that of three other(More)
Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their(More)
BACKGROUND Our sense of body ownership is profound and familiar, yet it may be misleading. In the rubber-hand illusion, synchronous tactile and visual stimulation lead to the experience that a rubber hand is actually one's own. This illusion is stronger in schizophrenia. Given the evidence that ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical data suggest that general anaesthetics affect brain development. There is mixed evidence from cohort studies that young children exposed to anaesthesia can have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to establish whether general anaesthesia in infancy has any effect on neurodevelopmental outcome. Here we report(More)