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OBJECTIVE Dementia is an important cause of mortality and, with the ageing population and increasing prevalence of dementia, reliable data on prognosis and survival will be of interest to patients and caregivers as well as providers and commissioners of health and social care. A review of the literature was undertaken to determine the rates of survival in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Elevated plasma homocysteine level has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Variation in the levels of this amino acid has been shown to be due to nutritional status and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype. METHODS Under a case-control design we compared fasting levels(More)
Recent years have seen a growing recognition that dementia is a terminal illness and that patients with advanced dementia nearing the end of life do not currently receive adequate palliative care. However, research into palliative care for these patients has thus far been limited. Furthermore, there has been little discussion in the literature regarding(More)
The explanation for why some patients develop psychotic change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unclear. "Psychosis-modifier genes" may act in the setting of neurodegeneration to produce AD plus psychosis in a similar way to how genetic modulation during neurodevelopment leads to schizophrenia. Because there is increasing interest in the common disruption of(More)
The behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are common, distressing to carers, and directly linked to the requirement for institutional care. Symptoms of aggression and agitation are particularly difficult for carers to tolerate. The origin of these features is unclear although genetic and environmental modification of pre-frontal serotonergic(More)
It has been suggested that genetic influences unmasked during neurodevelopment to produce schizophrenia may appear throughout neurodegeneration to produce AD plus psychosis. Risk of schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to polymorphic variation at the dopamine receptor DRD3 gene implying similar causative mechanisms. We(More)
Until recently, the central nervous system (CNS) has been thought to be an immune privileged organ. However, it is now understood that neuroinflammation is linked with the development of several CNS diseases including late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The development of inflammation is a complex process involving a wide array of molecular interactions(More)
Existing drugs for Alzheimer's disease provide symptomatic benefit for up to 12 months, but there are no approved disease-modifying therapies. Given the recent failures of various novel disease-modifying therapies in clinical trials, a complementary strategy based on repositioning drugs that are approved for other indications could be attractive. Indeed, a(More)
OBJECTIVES The behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with significant patient and caregiver distress and increased likelihood of institutionalization. We attempted to characterize in detail these symptoms and the distress they cause to caregivers. METHODS Patients with probable AD were assessed with the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To investigate the role of a monoamine A oxidase promoter polymorphism in sleep disruption in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN A case-control association analysis. SETTING Sleep disturbance in AD is common, is extremely stressful for caregivers, and increases the risk of institutionalisation. It remains unclear why only some patients(More)