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In this review, we consider the nature and possible developmental functions of physical activity play, defined as a playful context combined with a dimension of physical vigor. We distinguish 3 kinds of physical activity play, with consecutive age peaks: rhythmic stereotypies peaking in infancy, exercise play peaking during the preschool years, and(More)
The three objectives in this longitudinal study were motivated by sexual selection theory. The theory specifies the role of sexually segregated groups and the effects of dominance in male groups and relational/indirect aggression in female groups for heterosexual relationships. Using a multi-method, multi-informant, longitudinal design we studied youngsters(More)
The hypothesis is tested that adolescent boys' (mean age of 12.8 years) intrasexual rough-and-tumble play (R&T) is used for dominance and intersexual R&T is used to establish heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, boys' observed R&T was related to both dominance and aggression. In the first half of the school year, R&T occurred primarily between males,(More)
We examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of object and fantasy play from a functional perspective. Each form of play is described from an evolutionary perspective in terms of its place in the total time and energy budgets of human and nonhuman juveniles. As part of discussion of functions of play, we examine sex differences, particularly as they relate to life(More)
Some devalue recess because they assume it to be a waste of time. There is no theory or empirical evidence to support this point of view. There is, however, abundant and clear evidence that recess has beneficial effects on children's social competence and academic performance. The author tells how his interest in standardized tests led him to years of(More)
In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may inXuence subsequent evolutionary processes.(More)
The authors examined preschoolers' aggressive and cooperative behaviors and their associations with social dominance. First and as predicted, directly observed aggressive interactions decreased across the school year, and same-sex aggression occurred more frequently than cross-sex aggression. Next, the authors examined the relation between aggression and(More)
However, a similar trend was observed in a much more rigorously conducted survey in England (Blatchford & Sumpner, 1998). That survey's nationally representative random sample of primary and secondary schools (1 in 10 of such schools in the country) found uniform erosion of recess time across a 5-year period (1990/1991– 1995/1996). Declines in recess(More)
In this within-subjects design field experiment children's behaviour in the playground was charted as a function of gender and time in the classroom immediately preceding playtime. Playground behaviour was also related to post-recess classroom behaviour. Twenty-three 9-year-old children were observed for 14 weeks. Classroom behaviour (i.e., task relevant(More)