Anthony P. Moll

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BACKGROUND The epidemics of HIV-1 and tuberculosis in South Africa are closely related. High mortality rates in co-infected patients have improved with antiretroviral therapy, but drug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged as a major cause of death. We assessed the prevalence and consequences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)(More)
RATIONALE The multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) epidemics are rapidly expanding in South Africa. Our initial report of HIV-associated XDR TB in South Africa revealed rapid and near complete mortality. Lower mortality has been described in the literature, but few of these patients have been HIV coinfected. (More)
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a growing clinical and public-health concern. To evaluate existing evidence regarding treatment regimens for MDR tuberculosis, we used a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis of the available therapeutic studies to assess how the reported proportion of patients treated successfully is influenced by differences in(More)
A baseline assessment of tuberculosis infection control (TB IC) knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) was conducted among staff in a resource-limited rural South African hospital where nosocomially transmitted multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB had been reported. Assessment consisted of anonymous questionnaires and direct observation during(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-tuberculosis) is a global public health threat, but few data exist elucidating factors driving this epidemic. The initial XDR-tuberculosis report from South Africa suggested transmission is an important factor, but detailed epidemiologic and molecular analyses were not available for further(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has spread among hospitalised patients in South Africa, but the epidemic-level effect of hospital-based infection control strategies remains unknown. We modelled the plausible effect of rapidly available infection control strategies on the overall course of the XDR tuberculosis epidemic in a rural(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are now major threats in areas of South Africa with a high prevalence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of exogenous reinfection as a cause of MDR and XDR TB in these settings has not been determined. METHODS We reviewed data from(More)
SETTING Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa have suffered as centralized, in-patient treatment programs struggle to cope with rising prevalence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates. A new treatment model is needed to expand treatment capacity and improve MDR-TB and HIV outcomes. OBJECTIVE(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in resource-limited facilities where TB infection control (IC) is poorly implemented. Theory-based behavioral models can potentially improve IC practices. METHODS The present study used an anonymous questionnaire to assess healthcare worker (HCW) TB IC information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) and(More)
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has been detected in most provinces of South Africa, particularly in the KwaZulu-Natal province where several hundred cases have been reported since 2004. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of XDR TB in the region using mathematical models, and observed that nosocomial transmission clusters of XDR TB may(More)