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BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-tuberculosis) is a global public health threat, but few data exist elucidating factors driving this epidemic. The initial XDR-tuberculosis report from South Africa suggested transmission is an important factor, but detailed epidemiologic and molecular analyses were not available for further(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemics of HIV-1 and tuberculosis in South Africa are closely related. High mortality rates in co-infected patients have improved with antiretroviral therapy, but drug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged as a major cause of death. We assessed the prevalence and consequences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)(More)
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a growing clinical and public-health concern. To evaluate existing evidence regarding treatment regimens for MDR tuberculosis, we used a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis of the available therapeutic studies to assess how the reported proportion of patients treated successfully is influenced by differences in(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has spread among hospitalised patients in South Africa, but the epidemic-level effect of hospital-based infection control strategies remains unknown. We modelled the plausible effect of rapidly available infection control strategies on the overall course of the XDR tuberculosis epidemic in a rural(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients worldwide. In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 80% of TB patients are HIV coinfected, with high treatment default and mortality rates. Integrating TB and HIV care may be an effective strategy for improving outcomes for both diseases. METHODS Prospective operational research(More)
RATIONALE The multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) epidemics are rapidly expanding in South Africa. Our initial report of HIV-associated XDR TB in South Africa revealed rapid and near complete mortality. Lower mortality has been described in the literature, but few of these patients have been HIV coinfected. (More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) have emerged in high-HIV-prevalence settings, which generally lack laboratory infrastructure for diagnosing TB drug resistance. Even where available, inherent delays with current drug-susceptibility testing (DST) methods result in clinical deterioration and ongoing(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are now major threats in areas of South Africa with a high prevalence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of exogenous reinfection as a cause of MDR and XDR TB in these settings has not been determined. METHODS We reviewed data from(More)
We expanded second-line tuberculosis (TB) drug susceptibility testing for extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from South Africa. Of 19 patients with extensively drug-resistant TB identified during February 2008-April 2009, 13 (68%) had isolates resistant to all 8 drugs tested. This resistance leaves no effective treatment with(More)
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has been detected in most provinces of South Africa, particularly in the KwaZulu-Natal province where several hundred cases have been reported since 2004. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of XDR TB in the region using mathematical models, and observed that nosocomial transmission clusters of XDR TB may(More)