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OBJECTIVE Convergent research demonstrates disrupted attention and heightened threat sensitivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This might be linked to aberrations in large-scale networks subserving the detection of salient stimuli (i.e., the salience network [SN]) and stimulus-independent, internally focused thought (i.e., the default mode(More)
BACKGROUND Converging neuroimaging research suggests altered emotion neurocircuitry in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotion activation studies in these individuals have shown hyperactivation in emotion-related regions, including the amygdala and insula, and hypoactivation in emotion-regulation regions, including the medial(More)
The biophysical and pharmacological properties of voltage-gated calcium channel currents in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NT2-N were studied using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. When held at -80 mV, barium currents (I(Ba)s) were evoked by voltage commands to above -35 mV that peaked at +5 mV. When holding potentials were reduced to -20 mV or 5(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and cortisol release are consequences of central stress system activation, but they may also influence cognitive and emotional processes within the brain. Despite the importance of central stress response systems, little is known about the specific brain circuits through which psychosocial stimuli(More)
BACKGROUND The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and(More)
The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is significantly higher than that in the general population. Comorbid anxiety disorders in COPD are associated with a number of worse outcomes, however little is known about the mechanisms by which PD affects patients with COPD. We hypothesized that patients(More)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients display pervasive fear memories, expressed indiscriminately. Proposed mechanisms include enhanced fear learning and impaired extinction or extinction recall. Documented extinction recall deficits and failure to use safety signals could result from general failure to use contextual information, a(More)
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a neurosteroid with anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiglucocorticoid properties. It is endogenously released in response to stress, and may reduce negative affect when administered exogenously. Although there have been multiple reports of DHEA's antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, no research to date has examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that mindfulness may be an effective component for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. Mindfulness involves practice in volitional shifting of attention from "mind wandering" to present-moment attention to sensations, and cultivating acceptance. We examined potential neural correlates of mindfulness training(More)
Neural substrates underlying psychological activation of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis are not well understood in humans. Trauma recall (using autobiographical script-driven imagery) may provide a model to study neural circuitry involved in LHPA axis activation to personally threatening psychological stimuli. This study sought to(More)