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OBJECTIVE Convergent research demonstrates disrupted attention and heightened threat sensitivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This might be linked to aberrations in large-scale networks subserving the detection of salient stimuli (i.e., the salience network [SN]) and stimulus-independent, internally focused thought (i.e., the default mode(More)
BACKGROUND Converging neuroimaging research suggests altered emotion neurocircuitry in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotion activation studies in these individuals have shown hyperactivation in emotion-related regions, including the amygdala and insula, and hypoactivation in emotion-regulation regions, including the medial(More)
The biophysical and pharmacological properties of voltage-gated calcium channel currents in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NT2-N were studied using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. When held at -80 mV, barium currents (I(Ba)s) were evoked by voltage commands to above -35 mV that peaked at +5 mV. When holding potentials were reduced to -20 mV or 5(More)
BACKGROUND "Mindfulness-based" interventions show promise for stress reduction in general medical conditions, and initial evidence suggests that they are accepted in trauma-exposed individuals. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) shows substantial efficacy for prevention of depression relapse, but it has been less studied in anxiety disorders. This(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and cortisol release are consequences of central stress system activation, but they may also influence cognitive and emotional processes within the brain. Despite the importance of central stress response systems, little is known about the specific brain circuits through which psychosocial stimuli(More)
BACKGROUND The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and(More)
In rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, activation of kappa- and mu-opioid receptors decreases N-type calcium current, whereas a constitutively active form of protein kinase C (PKC; i.e., PKM, a PKC catalytic subunit fragment) increases N-type calcium current. PKC also attenuates inhibition of calcium current by several G protein-linked neurotransmitter(More)
OBJECTIVE Research on surgical outcomes has focused on technical results and physical morbidity. However, postoperative psychiatric complications are common and can undermine functional results. High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder have been documented after cardiac events or surgery. These complications are also(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in perinatal than general samples of women (6-8% vs. 4-5%). To explore potential causes, we examined the symptom profiles of women belonging to two separate samples: a perinatal clinic sample (n = 1581) and a subsample of women in a similar age range from the U. S. National Women's Study (NWS) (n =(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that mindfulness may be an effective component for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. Mindfulness involves practice in volitional shifting of attention from "mind wandering" to present-moment attention to sensations, and cultivating acceptance. We examined potential neural correlates of mindfulness training(More)