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PURPOSE To report 36-month outcomes of RIDE (NCT00473382) and RISE (NCT00473330), trials of ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN Phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-masked, 3-year trials, sham injection-controlled for 2 years. PARTICIPANTS Adults with DME (n=759), baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 20/40 to 20/320 Snellen(More)
We describe the genomic organization and functional characterization of the mouse gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a polypeptide implicated in embryonic vascular development and postnatal angiogenesis. The coding region for mouse VEGF is interrupted by seven introns and encompasses approximately 14 kilobases. Organization of exons(More)
PURPOSE Assess 12-month efficacy and safety of intraocular injections of 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg ranibizumab in patients with macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). DESIGN Prospective, randomized, sham injection-controlled, double-masked, multicenter trial. PARTICIPANTS A total of 397 patients with macular edema after BRVO. METHODS(More)
Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands that are selected for high-affinity binding to molecular targets. Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen; Eyetech Pharmaceuticals/Pfizer) is an RNA aptamer directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-165, the VEGF isoform primarily responsible for pathological ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability. After(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are linked with the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are increased in ischemic and nonischemic diabetic retina, and VEGF is required for the development of retinal and iris neovascularization. Moreover, VEGF(More)
BACKGROUND New vessel growth is often associated with ischemia, and hypoxic tissue has been identified as a potential source of angiogenic factors. In particular, ischemia is associated with the development of neovascularization in a number of ocular pathologies. For this reason, we have studied the induction of endothelial cell mitogens by hypoxia in(More)
Neovascularization occurs in many eye diseases, and its epidemiologic impact is significant. However, data on the prevalence and incidence of ocular neovascularization have never been compiled to demonstrate its pervasiveness. This overview of ocular angiogenesis provides a review of the epidemiologic literature for neovascularization in various parts of(More)
Age-related macular degeneration is the principal cause of registered legal blindness among those aged over 65 in the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan. Despite intensive research, the precise etiology of molecular events that underlie age-related macular degeneration is poorly understood. However, investigations on parallel fronts are(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has recently been recognized as an important neuroprotectant in the central nervous system. Given its position as an anti-angiogenic target in the treatment of human diseases, understanding the extent of VEGF's role in neural cell survival is paramount. Here, we used a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and(More)
PURPOSE To determine the in vitro permeability of the sclera to high molecular weight compounds and the relationship between scleral permeability and molecular size. METHODS Fresh rabbit sclera was mounted in a two-chamber diffusion apparatus, and its permeability to sodium fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated bovine serum albumin,(More)