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Leptin acts on the brain to regulate body weight and neuroendocrine function. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are important targets of leptin. These cells express the leptin receptor ObRb, and leptin can regulate POMC mRNA levels, but the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show evidence that leptin stimulates(More)
Starvation causes a rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels in rodents. This adaptive response is caused by a reduction in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression that can be reversed by the administration of leptin. Here we examined hypothalamic signaling pathways engaged by leptin to upregulate TRH gene expression. As assessed by leptin-induced(More)
The central neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (Y1-R) system has been implicated in feeding, endocrine, and autonomic regulation. In the present study, we systematically examined the brain distribution of Y1-R mRNA in rodents by using radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) with a novel sensitive cRNA probe. Within the rat hypothalamus,(More)
The beta isoform of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta) has a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (H-P-T) axis. The mechanism of trans-repression of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) subunit genes, however, remains poorly understood. A number of distinct(More)
W e are writing as scientists and editors of leading peer-reviewed journals that have published important contributions in the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). By signing this editorial, we affirm that regulatory decisions on EDCs should be made based on the best available science and expertise that involves, among others, reproductive(More)
The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (CG beta) is encoded by a cluster of six genes, which have developed through gene duplication from an ancestral LH beta gene. Despite approximately 90% sequence homology between the CG beta and LH beta promoters, the CG beta gene is expressed in the placenta, whereas the LH beta promoter is active only in the(More)
The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) isoforms have the capacity to silence gene expression in the absence of their ligands on target response elements. This active repression is mediated by the ability of the corepressors, nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from the gut is an incretin that stimulates insulin secretion. GLP-1 is also a brain neuropeptide that has diverse central actions, including inhibition of food and water intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of neuroendocrine responses characteristic of visceral illness. Both intravenous and(More)
The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) interacts with the DNA-bound thyroid receptor (TR) homodimer through two of its three receptor-interacting domains (RIDs). One of these RIDs must be the most N-terminal, termed N3, which preferentially works with the next closest RID, N2. Interestingly, the spacing between the RIDs is conserved between species such(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a critical role in mediating changes in development and metabolism in humans. Thus, circulating TH levels are regulated by a number of distinct mechanisms to allow them to remain at physiologic levels. The central regulation of the thyroid axis by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the(More)