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Leptin acts on the brain to regulate body weight and neuroendocrine function. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are important targets of leptin. These cells express the leptin receptor ObRb, and leptin can regulate POMC mRNA levels, but the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show evidence that leptin stimulates(More)
The beta isoform of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta) has a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (H-P-T) axis. The mechanism of trans-repression of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) subunit genes, however, remains poorly understood. A number of distinct(More)
Starvation causes a rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels in rodents. This adaptive response is caused by a reduction in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression that can be reversed by the administration of leptin. Here we examined hypothalamic signaling pathways engaged by leptin to upregulate TRH gene expression. As assessed by leptin-induced(More)
The central neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (Y1-R) system has been implicated in feeding, endocrine, and autonomic regulation. In the present study, we systematically examined the brain distribution of Y1-R mRNA in rodents by using radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) with a novel sensitive cRNA probe. Within the rat hypothalamus,(More)
W e are writing as scientists and editors of leading peer-reviewed journals that have published important contributions in the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). By signing this editorial, we affirm that regulatory decisions on EDCs should be made based on the best available science and expertise that involves, among others, reproductive(More)
The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (CG beta) is encoded by a cluster of six genes, which have developed through gene duplication from an ancestral LH beta gene. Despite approximately 90% sequence homology between the CG beta and LH beta promoters, the CG beta gene is expressed in the placenta, whereas the LH beta promoter is active only in the(More)
Mutation of a critical carboxy-terminal cysteine residue (C105V) in the thyrotropin-beta (TSH-beta) subunit gene was found in two related families with central hypothyroidism. Affected patients had low thyroid hormone levels and radioactive iodine uptake in the thyroid gland associated with measurable serum TSH. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated TSH(More)
The ob gene product, leptin, is a major hormonal regulator of appetite and fat cell mass. Recent work has suggested that the antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones (TZ), which are also high affinity ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), inhibit leptin expression in rodents. To examine the effects of this class of drug(More)
TRH is the principal positive regulator of TSH synthesis and secretion in man. T3 is able to control TRH synthesis through feedback inhibition at the transcriptional level, presumably by binding to its receptor which interacts with one or more negative thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) present within the human TRH promoter. In the present study we(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear hormone receptor that is critical for adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Ligands for PPARgamma include some polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostanoids and the synthetic high affinity antidiabetic agents thiazolidinediones. However, the identity of a biologically relevant(More)