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The beta isoform of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta) has a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (H-P-T) axis. The mechanism of trans-repression of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) subunit genes, however, remains poorly understood. A number of distinct(More)
Leptin acts on the brain to regulate body weight and neuroendocrine function. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are important targets of leptin. These cells express the leptin receptor ObRb, and leptin can regulate POMC mRNA levels, but the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show evidence that leptin stimulates(More)
Starvation causes a rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels in rodents. This adaptive response is caused by a reduction in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression that can be reversed by the administration of leptin. Here we examined hypothalamic signaling pathways engaged by leptin to upregulate TRH gene expression. As assessed by leptin-induced(More)
TRH is the principal positive regulator of TSH synthesis and secretion in man. T3 is able to control TRH synthesis through feedback inhibition at the transcriptional level, presumably by binding to its receptor which interacts with one or more negative thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) present within the human TRH promoter. In the present study we(More)
The central neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (Y1-R) system has been implicated in feeding, endocrine, and autonomic regulation. In the present study, we systematically examined the brain distribution of Y1-R mRNA in rodents by using radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) with a novel sensitive cRNA probe. Within the rat hypothalamus,(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and is an important regulator of adipogenesis and adipocyte gene expression. PPARgamma exists as two isoforms, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2, that differ only in their N termini. Both isoforms are activated by ligands that include the(More)
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is due to mutations in the beta-isoform of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta). The mutant TR interferes with the action of normal TR to cause the clinical syndrome. Selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (PRTH) results in inappropriate TSH secretion and peripheral sensitivity to elevated thyroid hormone(More)
W e are writing as scientists and editors of leading peer-reviewed journals that have published important contributions in the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). By signing this editorial, we affirm that regulatory decisions on EDCs should be made based on the best available science and expertise that involves, among others, reproductive(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from the gut functions as an incretin that stimulates insulin secretion. GLP-1 is also a brain neuropeptide that controls feeding and drinking behavior and gastric emptying and elicits neuroendocrine responses including development of conditioned taste aversion. Although GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are under(More)
The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (CG beta) is encoded by a cluster of six genes, which have developed through gene duplication from an ancestral LH beta gene. Despite approximately 90% sequence homology between the CG beta and LH beta promoters, the CG beta gene is expressed in the placenta, whereas the LH beta promoter is active only in the(More)