Anthony Markham

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UNLABELLED Based on findings that the cardiotoxicity infrequently observed with racemic bupivacaine shows enantioselectivity, i.e. it is more pronounced with the R(+)-enantiomer, the S(-)-enantiomer (levobupivacaine) has been developed for clinical use as a long acting local anaesthetic. The majority of in vitro, in vivo and human pharmacodynamic studies of(More)
Deflazacort is an oxazoline derivative of prednisolone with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity. Both short (4 to 6 weeks) and longer term (13 to 52 weeks) studies have shown deflazacort to be as effective as prednisone or methylprednisolone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The drug was at least as effective as prednisone in children with(More)
The antiviral nucleoside analogue ganciclovir has demonstrated in vitro activity against human cytomegalovirus and effectively treats infection caused by this organism in various immunocompromised patient groups. The drug prolongs time to progression in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cytomegalovirus retinitis although(More)
Ciprofloxacin is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Since its introduction in the 1980s, most Gram-negative bacteria have remained highly susceptible to this agent in vitro; Gram-positive bacteria are generally susceptible or moderately susceptible. Ciprofloxacin attains therapeutic concentrations in most tissues and body fluids. The(More)
Troglitazone decreases insulin resistance (improves insulin sensitivity), which results in reduced plasma glucose and insulin levels in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as elevated proinsulin and triglyceride levels are also reduced by troglitazone. In clinical trials, troglitazone(More)
UNLABELLED Infliximab is a chimaeric monoclonal antibody to human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). It binds to both soluble and transmembrane forms of TNFalpha at picomolar concentrations in vitro. Secondary to inhibition of TNFalpha, infliximab reduces serum levels of inflammatory mediators and vascular endothelial growth factor, decreases the(More)
Fludarabine is an antineoplastic agent which has been studied in patients with a variety of lymphoproliferative malignancies. Clinical evidence from comparative studies in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) suggests that fludarabine is at least as effective as CAP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone) or CHOP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine,(More)
UNLABELLED The long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol and the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate are available as a combination inhalation device for the treatment of persistent asthma. Well designed studies in adults, adolescents and children aged > or =4 years, demonstrate that combined salmetero/fluticasone propionate 50/100, 50/250 and 50/500 microg(More)
Pamidronate (APD) is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption that is useful in the management of patients with osteolytic bone metastases from breast cancer or multiple myeloma, tumour-induced hypercalcaemia or Paget's disease of bone. After intravenous administration, the drug is extensively taken up in bone, where it binds with hydroxyapatite crystals in(More)