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Hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in HFE, a protein that competes with transferrin (TF) for binding to transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). We developed mutant mouse strains to gain insight into the role of the Hfe/Tfr1 complex in regulating iron homeostasis. We introduced mutations into a ubiquitously expressed Tfr1 transgene or the endogenous Tfr1 locus to(More)
The Ras gene is frequently mutated in cancer, and mutant Ras drives tumorigenesis. Although Ras is a central oncogene, small molecules that bind to Ras in a well-defined manner and exert inhibitory effects have not been uncovered to date. Through an NMR-based fragment screen, we identified a group of small molecules that all bind to a common site on Ras.(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation.(More)
Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR) plays a critical role in cellular iron import for most higher organisms. Cell surface TfR binds to circulating iron-loaded transferrin (Fe-Tf) and transports it to acidic endosomes, where low pH promotes iron to dissociate from transferrin (Tf) in a TfR-assisted process. The iron-free form of Tf (apo-Tf) remains bound to TfR and(More)
In this benchmark study, 26 investigators were asked to characterize the kinetics and affinities of 10 sulfonamide inhibitors binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II using Biacore optical biosensors. A majority of the participants collected data that could be fit to a 1:1 interaction model, but a subset of the data sets obtained from some instruments(More)
The transferrins (TF) are a family of bilobal glycoproteins that tightly bind ferric iron. Each of the homologous N- and C-lobes contains a single iron-binding site situated in a deep cleft. Human serum transferrin (hTF) serves as the iron transport protein in the blood; circulating transferrin binds to receptors on the cell surface, and the complex is(More)
Many immune signaling pathways require activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase to link ligation of surface receptors to changes in gene expression. Despite the central role of Syk in these pathways, the Syk activation process remains poorly understood. In this work we quantitatively characterized the molecular mechanism of Syk activation in vitro using a real(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) trapping by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a phenomenon whereby the affinity of CaM for CaMKII increases >1000-fold following CaMKII autophosphorylation. The molecular basis of this effect is not entirely understood. Binding of CaM to the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated states of CaMKII is well mimicked by(More)
Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) is a ubiquitin ligase with critical roles in the control of programmed cell death and NF-κB signaling. Under normal conditions, the protein exists as an autoinhibited monomer, but proapoptotic signals lead to its dimerization, activation and proteasomal degradation. This view of cIAP1 as a binary switch has been(More)
Numerous oncogenic mutations occur within the BRAF kinase domain (BRAF(KD)). Here we show that stable BRAF-MEK1 complexes are enriched in BRAF(WT) and KRAS mutant (MT) cells but not in BRAF(MT) cells. The crystal structure of the BRAF(KD) in a complex with MEK1 reveals a face-to-face dimer sensitive to MEK1 phosphorylation but insensitive to BRAF(More)