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The Ras gene is frequently mutated in cancer, and mutant Ras drives tumorigenesis. Although Ras is a central oncogene, small molecules that bind to Ras in a well-defined manner and exert inhibitory effects have not been uncovered to date. Through an NMR-based fragment screen, we identified a group of small molecules that all bind to a common site on Ras.(More)
Hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in HFE, a protein that competes with transferrin (TF) for binding to transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). We developed mutant mouse strains to gain insight into the role of the Hfe/Tfr1 complex in regulating iron homeostasis. We introduced mutations into a ubiquitously expressed Tfr1 transgene or the endogenous Tfr1 locus to(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation.(More)
In this benchmark study, 26 investigators were asked to characterize the kinetics and affinities of 10 sulfonamide inhibitors binding to the enzyme carbonic anhydrase II using Biacore optical biosensors. A majority of the participants collected data that could be fit to a 1:1 interaction model, but a subset of the data sets obtained from some instruments(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) trapping by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a phenomenon whereby the affinity of CaM for CaMKII increases >1000-fold following CaMKII autophosphorylation. The molecular basis of this effect is not entirely understood. Binding of CaM to the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated states of CaMKII is well mimicked by(More)
Promiscuous binders achieve enzyme inhibition using a nonspecific aggregation-type binding mechanism to proteins. These compounds are a source of false-positive hits in biochemical inhibition assays and should be removed from screening hit lists because they are not good candidates to initiate medicinal chemistry programs. We introduce a robust approach to(More)
Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR) plays a critical role in cellular iron import for most higher organisms. Cell surface TfR binds to circulating iron-loaded transferrin (Fe-Tf) and transports it to acidic endosomes, where low pH promotes iron to dissociate from transferrin (Tf) in a TfR-assisted process. The iron-free form of Tf (apo-Tf) remains bound to TfR and(More)
Multiple nonnucleoside inhibitor binding sites have been identified within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase, including in the palm and thumb domains. After a single treatment with a thumb site inhibitor (thiophene-2-carboxylic acid NNI-1), resistant HCV replicon variants emerged that contained mutations at residues Leu419, Met423, and Ile482 in the(More)
Many immune signaling pathways require activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase to link ligation of surface receptors to changes in gene expression. Despite the central role of Syk in these pathways, the Syk activation process remains poorly understood. In this work we quantitatively characterized the molecular mechanism of Syk activation in vitro using a real(More)
Fragment screens for new ligands have had wide success, notwithstanding their constraint to libraries of 1,000-10,000 molecules. Larger libraries would be addressable were molecular docking reliable for fragment screens, but this has not been widely accepted. To investigate docking's ability to prioritize fragments, a library of >137,000 such molecules were(More)