Anthony M Carter

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Analysis of molecular data sets has provided new insights into higher-level relationships of living Eutheria, including the recognition of Afrotheria as a novel taxon. This offers an opportunity to take a fresh look at the evolution of organ systems, including some that are little used in traditional systematics. In the present study, we attempted a(More)
PURPOSE del(17p), del(11q), and associated p53 dysfunction predict for short survival and chemoresistance in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated by DNA damage and mediates DNA double-strand break repair. We hypothesized that inhibiting DNA-PK would sensitize CLL cells to drug-induced DNA damage and(More)
Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder(More)
To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies established by somatic nucleus transfer (NT), the umbilical(More)
Placentae of three hystricimorph rodents--capybara, agouti and paca--were examined by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, and TUNEL staining. The placentae were divided into lobules of labyrinthine syncytium separated by interlobular and marginal trophoblast. The subplacenta comprised cytotrophoblasts, supported on(More)
We review recent advances in our understanding of placental evolution with particular focus on the interhaemal barrier. It seems likely that the non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation of living eutherians is a derived state. However, there is disagreement on whether the last common ancestor of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a(More)
Rock cavies are rodents found in the semi-arid caatinga of Brazil. We studied the structure of the rock cavy placenta by light and transmission electron microscopy. The exchange area of the labyrinth was organized in lobes separated by interlobular areas. The interhaemal barrier was syncytial haemomonochorial. The syncytiotrophoblast had recesses in the(More)
To better understand the role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs 1-6) in placental development and function, it is important to review similarities and differences between species in expression of the respective mRNAs. In human placenta, IGF-II mRNA is expressed in chorionic mesoderm and first trimester(More)
This study investigates the capacity of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in freshly isolated myeloma cells (MC) and bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC). Recombinant human (rh) IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha augmented production of(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulating microparticles are increased in cardiovascular disease and may themselves promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Molecular mechanisms underlying their formation and signaling are unclear. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Rho kinase, and lipid rafts in microparticle formation and examined their functional(More)