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In a study of 52 individuals belonging to 35 species or subspecies of passerine birds it was shown that the volume of the hippocampal complex relative to brain and body size is significantly larger in species that store food than in species that do not. Retrieval of stored food relies on an accurate and long-lasting spatial memory, and hippocampal damage(More)
Three families of North American passerines--chickadees, nuthatches and jays--store food. Previous research has shown that memory for the spatial locations of caches is the principal mechanism of cache recovery. It has also been previously shown that the hippocampal complex (hippocampus and area parahippocampalis) plays an important role in memory for cache(More)
Peripheral tissue damage or nerve injury often leads to pathological pain processes, such as spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, that persist for years or decades after all possible tissue healing has occurred. Although peripheral neural mechanisms, such as nociceptor sensitization and neuroma formation, contribute to these pathological pain(More)
The role of cingulum in the perception of tonic and phasic pain was examined by injecting lidocaine, a local anesthetic, into the anterior cingulum bundle of the rat. A cannula was stereotaxically implanted into the anterior cingulum on one side in anesthetized rats. Seven to 10 days after surgery, the rats were infused with 1 microliter of 2% lidocaine in(More)
Subcutaneous injection of formalin produces a characteristic biphasic pain response. An early phase develops in the first 5 min after injection; the pain then decreases for 10-15 min, followed by a gradual rise to a stable plateau that lasts about 1 h. Rats were injected with 1 microliter of 2% lidocaine or saline into the anterior cingulum bundle at 0(More)
We previously reported that morphine fails to produce analgesic tolerance when administered in the presence of formalin-induced pain, which may be related to activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we examined whether suppression of corticosterone secretion during pain prevents the blockade of tolerance to morphine(More)
Systemic administration of naloxone usually produces either hyperalgesia or no change in nociception depending on the animal species used and/or the pain test employed. This study, however, demonstrates that naloxone produces a dose-dependent analgesia in the formalin pain test using an inbred strain of albino mouse. Female BALB/c, C57BL/6 and CD1 mice were(More)
To investigate the possible involvement of enduring or delayed changes at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor in the mechanisms of morphine tolerance, rats were treated with the specific NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg) 2 h after morphine injection (20 mg/kg) during a 4-day induction period of tolerance. On the fifth day rats were(More)
The traditional specificity theory of pain perception holds that pain involves a direct transmission system from somatic receptors to the brain. The amount of pain perceived, moreover, is assumed to be directly proportional to the extent of injury. Recent research, however, indicates far more complex mechanisms. Clinical and experimental evidence shows that(More)
Several studies have demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 attenuates the development of morphine tolerance and withdrawal. These studies employed repeated morphine injections to induce tolerance, a procedure in which learning has been suggested to play a significant role in tolerance development. MK-801 has been reported to(More)