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1. A semi-synthetic diet, the semi-synthetic diet plus pectin, and a stock diet were fed to rats, and three metabolic functions of the caecal bacteria (reduction of amaranth, p-nitrobenzoic acid and nitrate) were measured in vitro. 2. No consistent differences were noted between diets for the reduction of amaranth and p-nitrobenzoic acid. 3. No consistent(More)
Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted in male and female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats on highly refined white mineral oils and waxes representative of those used for food applications. The goal was to help clarify the mixed results found in other toxicity studies with laboratory animals. Seven white oils and 5 waxes were fed at dietary doses of(More)
A comparison was made in six species of animal (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea-pig, marmoset and man) of five enzyme activities associated with the hindgut microflora. Marked differences were found in the caecal activities of azoreductase, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, nitrate reductase and nitroreductase in the four rodents, with no one species(More)
The enzyme activity of the rat hindgut microflora maintained in an anaerobic two-stage continuous culture was compared with that of rat cecal contents. A qualitative comparison (API ZYM) showed a high degree of similarity between the two populations. Quantitative determinations showed that azoreductase, beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, and(More)
A fibre-free diet, or the same diet supplemented with 100 g cabbage or carrot cell-wall preparation/kg, was fed to rats for 28 days and the activities of a number of caecal microbial enzymes (azoreductase, aryl nitroreductase, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, imidazole nitroreductase and nitrite reductase) were determined in vitro. The plant cell-wall(More)
The review will encompass the following points: A brief introduction to the role of the gut flora in the toxicology of ingested food components, contaminants, and additives, including known pathways of activation and detoxication of foreign compounds and the implication of the flora in enterohepatic circulation of xenobiotics. The advantages and(More)
For 30 days, male weanling rats were fed a semipurified, fiber-free diet or a diet that contained 5, 15, or 30% (wt/wt) wheat bran. The activities of four cecal microbial enzymes were determined. Wheat bran significantly increased the wet weight content of the cecum and total bacterial count per cecum at the intermediate- and high-treatment levels, but it(More)
The activities of four bacterial biotransformation enzymes (beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, nitrate reductase and nitroreductase) were measured in the caecal contents of conventional flora rats or germ-free rats contaminated with a mixed, human faecal flora and compared with activities present in a fresh human stool preparation. Both the conventional(More)
1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on either a purified, fibre-free diet or a diet in which half the maize starch was replaced with uncooked amylomaize or potato starch (equivalent to 100 or 200 g amylase-resistant starch (ARS)/kg diet respectively). Changes in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), pH, ammonia and a number of bacterial variables in caecal(More)