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A mainstay of ecological theory and practice is that coexisting species use different resources, leading to the local development of biodiversity. However, a problem arises for understanding coexistence of multiple species if they share critical resources too generally. Here, we employ an experimental framework grounded in nutritional physiology to show(More)
Animal body size often varies systematically along latitudinal gradients, where individuals are either larger or smaller with varying season length. This study examines ecotypic responses by the generalist grasshopper Melanoplus femurrubrum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in body size and covarying, physiologically based life history traits along a latitudinal(More)
Diets of grasshopper species from two arid grassland communities in Trans-Pecos, Texas, were determined by gut analysis. Species-specific food plant choice and niche breadths are presented for each of these species. As a group, grasshoppers range from monophagous to polyphagous feeders although most species fall in the oligophagous to polyphagous group.(More)
The impact of predation by the robber fly Proctacanthus milbertii Macquart on populations of adult grasshoppers from grasslands of the Nebraska sandhills was estimated. Densities of P. milbertii were estimated at 437 individuals per hectare (2 se=122). Overall densities of 23 species of grasshoppers were estimated to be 64,000 individuals per hectare with(More)
Several hypotheses predict defoliation-induced increases in individual plant fitness. In this paper we examine three such hypotheses: the Herbivore Optimization Hypothesis (HOH); the Continuum of Responses Hypothesis (CRH); and the Growth Rate Model (GRM). All three have in common predictions based on responses of defoliated individuals with the objective(More)
In this paper, we develop plug flow reactor models that simultaneously investigate how reaction and absorption, morphological differences, and temperature influence nutrient acquisition rates in simple, tubular animal guts. We present analytical solutions to the resulting reaction-advection equations that model these processes, and we obtain formulas giving(More)
The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is(More)
Studies of herbivorous insects have played a major role in understanding how ecological divergence can facilitate genetic differentiation. In contrast to the majority of herbivorous insects, grasshoppers as a group are largely polyphagous. Due to this relative lack of intimate grasshopper-plant associations, grasshopper-plant systems have not played a large(More)
The hypothesis that graminivorous grasshoppers select C3 grasses over C4 grasses was tested with experiments in the field. It was found that the generalist, graminivorous grasshopper Ageneotettix deorum typically chooses C3 as opposed to C4 grasses when both types are equally available. This preference is attributed to the differences in leaf anatomies of(More)
Because both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence insect population dynamics, operating at a range of temporal and spatial scales, it is difficult to assess their contributions. Long-term studies are ideal for assessing the relative contributions of multiple factors to abundance and community dynamics. Using data spanning 25 years, we investigate the(More)