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This paper presents the candidate/critique model of interactive problem solving , in which an automated problem solver communicates candidate solutions to the user and the user critiques those solutions. The system starts with minimal information about the user's preferences, and preferences are elicited and inferred incrementally by analyzing the(More)
Most learning systems and electronic textbooks accessible via the WWW up to now lack the capabilities of individualized help and adapted learning support that are the emergent features of on-site intelligent tutoring systems. This paper discusses the problems of developing interactive and adaptive learning systems on the WWW. We introduce ELM-ART II, an(More)
A rapidly growing number of user and student modeling systems have employed numerical techniques for uncertainty management. The three major paradigms are those of Bayesian networks, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, and fuzzy logic. In this overview, each of the first three main sections focuses on one of these paradigms. It first introduces the(More)
Recommender systems have traditionally recommended items to individual users, but there has recently been a proliferation of recommenders that address their recommendations to groups of users. The shift of focus from an individual to a group makes more of a difference than one might at first expect. This chapter discusses the most important new issues that(More)
This paper discusses the problems of developing adaptive self-explaining interfaces for advanced WorldWide Web (WWW) applications. Two kinds of adaptation are considered: incremental learning and incremental interfaces. The key problem for these kinds of adaptation is to decide which interface features should be explained or enabled next. We analyze(More)
e are powerful arguments to the effect that the inclusion of AI in interactive systems can make them more powerful and easier or more natural to use. The historical overview in this issue by Grudin (2009) reports on some arguments to this effect over the past few decades. The section " Taming the Savage Beast of HCI " in the theme article by Lieberman(More)
This paper shows how user modelling can improve the anaphoric utterances generated by a dialogue system. Two kinds of anaphora are examined: contextual ellipsis and the anaphoric use of singular definite noun phrases. In connection with ellipsis generation, anticipation of the way in which the user would be likely to reconstruct a given utterance can help(More)