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Bacteria adapt to environmental stimuli by adjusting their transcriptomes in a complex manner, the full potential of which has yet to be established for any individual bacterial species. Here, we report the transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis exposed to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions that the organism might encounter in nature. We(More)
The AAA+ superfamily of ATPases, which contain a homologous ATPase module, are found in all kingdoms of living organisms where they participate in diverse cellular processes including membrane fusion, proteolysis and DNA replication. Recent structural studies have revealed that they usually form ring-shaped oligomers, which are crucial for their ATPase(More)
BACKGROUND CysB is a tetrameric protein of identical subunits (M(r) = 36,000) which controls the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of cysteine in bacteria. CysB is both an activator and a repressor of transcription whose activity is responsive to the inducer N-acetylserine; thiosulphate and sulphide act as anti-inducers. CysB is a member(More)
The role of complementary hydrogen bonding as a determinant of biological specificity has been examined by protein engineering of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Deletion of a side chain between enzyme and substrate to leave an unpaired, uncharged hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor weakens binding energy by only 0.5-1.5 kcal mol-1. But the presence of an unpaired(More)
Spore formation is an extreme response of some bacteria to adversity. In Bacillus subtilis the proteins of the sin, sporulation inhibition, region form a component of an elaborate molecular circuitry that regulates the commitment to sporulation. SinR is a tetrameric repressor protein that binds to the promoters of genes essential for entry into sporulation(More)
BACKGROUND The periplasmic oligopeptide-binding protein OppA has a remarkably broad substrate specificity, binding peptides of two or five amino-acid residues with high affinity, but little regard to sequence. It is therefore an ideal system for studying how different chemical groups can be accommodated in a protein interior. The ability of the protein to(More)
Besides their role as a source of amino acids for Bacillus subtilis, exogenous peptides play important roles in the signalling pathways leading to the development of competence and sporulation. B.subtilis has three peptide transport systems all belonging to the ATP-binding cassette family, a dipeptide permease (Dpp) and two oligopeptide permeases (Opp and(More)
In a previous study, a mutant of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in which a threonine residue (Thr51) was converted to proline dramatically improved the affinity of the enzyme for its ATP substrate. How does Pro51 improve the enzyme's affinity for ATP? A priori, Pro51 might interact directly with the ATP, or it might distort the polypeptide backbone and thereby(More)
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which leads to approximately one million deaths per annum worldwide. Chemical validation of new antimalarial targets is urgently required in view of rising resistance to current drugs. One such putative target is the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase, which catalyses the attachment of(More)
Specific protein-ligand interactions are critical for cellular function, and most proteins select their partners with sharp discrimination. However, the oligopeptide-binding protein of Salmonella typhimurium (OppA) binds peptides of two to five amino acid residues without regard to sequence. The crystal structure of OppA reveals a three-domain organization,(More)