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A drug product combines pharmacologic activity with pharmaceutical properties. Desirable performance characteristics are physical and chemical stability, ease of processing, accurate and reproducible delivery to the target organ, and availability at the site of action. For the dry powder inhaler (DPI), these goals can be met with a suitable powder(More)
Purpose. Particles with aerodynamic diameters of 1–5μm deposit in the periphery of the lungs and are phagocytized by alveolarmacrophages, the primary site of Mycobacterium tuberculosisinfection. Aerosols of biodegradable polymeric microspheres containingantitubercular agents may be delivered to the lungs to improve the treatmentof tuberculosis. Methods.(More)
A Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv)-infected guinea pig model was used to screen for targeted delivery to the lungs by insufflation (with lactose excipient) or nebulization, of either rifampicin alone, rifampicin within poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (R-PLGA) or polymer microparticles alone (PLGA). Animals treated with single and double doses of(More)
Capreomycin is used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), but it is limited therapeutically by its severe side effects. The objectives of the present studies were (i) to design low-density porous capreomycin sulfate particles for efficient pulmonary delivery to improve local and systemic drug bioavailability and capacity to reduce(More)
Francisella tularensis is a highly pathogenic gram negative bacterium that infects multiple sites in a host, including the skin and the respiratory tract, which can lead to the onset of a deadly disease with a 50% mortality rate. The live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis, while attenuated in humans but still virulent in mice, is not an option for(More)
Purpose. To examine the effect of particle size and morphology on aerosol dispersion using jet-milled and spray-dried mannitol particles in narrow size distributions within the respirable range. Methods. Particle size and morphology were examined by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Aerosol dispersion was examined using a(More)
IL-1α and IL-1β were evaluated for their ability to provide adjuvant activity for the induction of serum antibody responses when nasally administered with protein antigens in mice and rabbits. In mice, intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) combined with IL-1β induced protective immunity that was(More)
Airflow characteristics and particle deposition have been numerically simulated in a triple bifurcation lung airway model (from generation 3-6 airways) with local tumors protruded from the sidewalls of generation 5 airways. The effects of tumors in terms of size and location on airflow, particle transport, and deposition patterns were analyzed for constant(More)
Phagocytosis represents a crucial event in the host defense against pathogens. Experimental methods are required that allow a range of particle doses to be delivered. However, it is not clear that these methods result in the same sites of deposition or mechanisms of clearance. The effect of particle administration by nebulization or instillation on the(More)
The relationship between physicochemical properties of drug/carrier blends and aerosol drug powder delivery was evaluated. Four pulmonary drugs each representing the major pulmonary therapeutic classes and with a different pharmacological action were employed. Specifically, the four pulmonary drugs were albuterol sulfate, ipratropium bromide monohydrate,(More)