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Astrocytes regulate synaptic connectivity in the CNS through secreted signals. Here we identified two astrocyte-secreted proteins, hevin and SPARC, as regulators of excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Hevin induces the formation of synapses between cultured rat retinal ganglion cells. SPARC is not synaptogenic, but specifically antagonizes(More)
GABAergic projections from the neocortex to subcortical structures have been poorly characterized. Using Dlxi12b-Cre mice, we found anatomical evidence for GABAergic neurons that project from the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to multiple subcortical targets. We used a combination of patch-clamp electrophysiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology to(More)
Myosin-V has been linked to actin-based organelle transport by a variety of genetic, biochemical and localization studies. However, it has yet to be determined whether myosin-V functions as an organelle motor. To further investigate this possibility, we conducted a biochemical and functional analysis of organelle-associated brain myosin-V. Using the initial(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of(More)
Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping with previous studies, there were only subtle but potentially(More)
PURPOSE To determine the incidence, duration, risk factors for, and clinical correlates of postictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES), and to further delineate the significance of PGES in the pathogenesis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the video-EEG studies of 109 consecutive(More)
Mutations in the phosphatase PTEN are strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate the function of Pten in cortical GABAergic neurons using conditional mutagenesis in mice. Loss of Pten results in a preferential loss of SST(+) interneurons, which increases the ratio of parvalbumin/somatostatin (PV/SST) interneurons, ectopic(More)
Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid that acts as a substrate for protein synthesis and as a signaling molecule. Leucine not incorporated into muscle protein is ultimately oxidized through intermediates such as β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) which itself is reported to enhance muscle mass and function in rats and humans. HMB has been reported(More)
We hypothesized that the qualities of play shown by children with autism reflect their impoverished experience of identifying with other people's attitudes and moving among person-anchored perspectives. On this basis, we predicted their play should manifest a relative lack of the social-developmental hallmarks that typify creative symbolic functioning. We(More)