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The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few(More)
Many damage-sensing neurons express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels. Here we examined the role of the sensory-neuron-specific (SNS) TTX-resistant sodium channel alpha subunit in nociception and pain by constructing sns-null mutant mice. These mice expressed only TTX-sensitive sodium currents on step depolarizations from normal(More)
Cerebellar granule cells express six GABAA receptor subunits abundantly (alpha1, alpha6, beta2, beta3, gamma2, and delta) and assemble various pentameric receptor subtypes with unknown subunit compositions; however, the rules guiding receptor subunit assembly are unclear. Here, removal of intact alpha6 protein from cerebellar granule cells allowed(More)
The recommendation of new plant varieties for commercial use requires reliable and accurate predictions of the average yield of each variety across a range of target environments and knowledge of important interactions with the environment. This information is obtained from series of plant variety trials, also known as multi-environment trials (MET).(More)
The propagation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated pluripotent state is dependent on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or related cytokines. These factors act through receptor complexes containing the signal transducer gp130. The downstream mechanisms that lead to ES cell self-renewal have not been delineated, however. In this study,(More)
To investigate the activity of candidate regulatory molecules in mammalian embryogenesis, we have developed a general strategy for modifying and reporting resident chromosomal gene expression. The picornaviral internal ribosome-entry site was incorporated into gene targeting constructs to provide cap-independent translation of a selectable marker from(More)
Investigated the validity of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R) using multiple concurrent objective and subjective measures of child distress, approach-avoidance behavior, fear, pain, child cooperation, and parents' perceived ability to help their preschool children during routine immunizations. Parents', staffs', and(More)
The propagation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells depends on signals transduced through the cytokine receptor subunit gp130. Signalling molecules activated downstream of gp130 in ES cells include STAT3, the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. A chimaeric receptor in which tyrosine 118 in(More)