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The redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was measured with the peptide N-Acetyl-Asn-Tyr-Thr-Cys-NH2. The peptide diffused across cellular membranes; some became glycosylated and thus trapped within the secretory pathway, and its cysteine residue underwent reversible thiol-disulfide exchanges with the surrounding redox buffer. Glycosylated peptides(More)
The phbC gene encoding the third enzyme of the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate polymerase, in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 has been identified by the complementation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate negative mutants of A. eutrophus H16. These results demonstrate that the three enzymes of the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate(More)
Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low price compared to sugars and other refined carbon feedstocks. Different PHA production strategies were compared using a recombinant(More)
The lack of quantitative descriptions of mammalian culture kinetics limits the ability to optimally design and control cell culture bioreactors. This limitation is ad dressed by developing mathematical equations relating the initial growth rate and the antibody productivity of the hybridoma cell line, CRL-1606, to its environmental state. This initial rate(More)
Two promoters required for expression of the ask-asd genes, encoding aspartokinase (AK) and aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASD), in Corynebacterium flavum N13, askP1 and askP2, have been identified by deletion analysis and S1 nuclease mapping. Transcription from askP1 initiates 35 and 38 bp upstream of the ask structural gene. A second promoter,(More)
Intracellular poly[D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) depolymerases degrade PHB granules to oligomers and monomers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Recently an intracellular PHB depolymerase gene (phaZ1) from Ralstonia eutropha was identified. We now report identification of candidate PHB depolymerase genes from R. eutropha, namely, phaZ2 and phaZ3, and their(More)
Biodiesel, monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids with short-chain alcohols derived from triacylglycerols (TAGs), can be produced from renewable biomass sources. Recently, there has been interest in producing microbial oils from oleaginous microorganisms. Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is known to accumulate large amounts of TAGs. Following on these earlier(More)
The bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 synthesizes polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) through reactions catalyzed by a β-ketothiolase (PhaA), an acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhaB), and a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC). An operon of three genes encoding these enzymatic steps was discovered in R. eutropha and has been well(More)
Lipase enzymes catalyze the reversible hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to fatty acids and glycerol at the lipid–water interface. The metabolically versatile Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is capable of utilizing various molecules containing long carbon chains such as plant oil, organic acids, or Tween as its sole carbon source for growth. Global gene(More)
Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose to xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and(More)