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The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a bile acid (BA) sensor coordinating cholesterol metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and absorption of dietary fats and vitamins. However, BAs are poor reagents for characterizing FXR functions due to multiple receptor independent properties. Accordingly, using combinatorial chemistry we evolved a small molecule(More)
Orexin is a key neurotransmitter of central arousal and reward circuits in the CNS. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX1R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX2R) with partially overlapping brain distributions. Genetic and pharmacological studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could provide therapeutic benefit for insomnia and other(More)
Despite increased understanding of the biological basis for sleep control in the brain, few novel mechanisms for the treatment of insomnia have been identified in recent years. One notable exception is inhibition of the excitatory neuropeptides orexins A and B by design of orexin receptor antagonists. Herein, we describe how efforts to understand the origin(More)
The field of small-molecule orexin antagonist research has evolved rapidly in the last 15 years from the discovery of the orexin peptides to clinical proof-of-concept for the treatment of insomnia. Clinical programs have focused on the development of antagonists that reversibly block the action of endogenous peptides at both the orexin 1 and orexin 2(More)
Orexin receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical utility for the treatment of insomnia. The majority of clinical efforts to date have focused on the development of dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs), small molecules that antagonize both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. Our group has recently disclosed medicinal chemistry efforts to identify(More)
The orexin (also known as hypocretin) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate sleep and other behavioral functions in mammals, and are therapeutic targets for sleep and wake disorders. The human receptors hOX1R and hOX2R, which are 64% identical in sequence, have overlapping but distinct physiological functions and potential therapeutic profiles. We(More)
Actelion Pharmaceuticals achieved clinical proof-of-concept for the treatment of insomnia in 2007 with the release of Phase II data on Almorexant, a potent dual (OX1R/OX2R) orexin receptor antagonist. GlaxoSmithKline also released clinical efficacy data on an orexin receptor antagonist in 2007 for the treatment of insomnia. With these exciting findings, the(More)
BACKGROUND NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first of three large enzyme complexes located in the cell's inner mitochondrial membrane which form the electron transport chain that carries electrons from NADH to molecular oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation. There is significant interest in developing small molecule inhibitors of this(More)
Orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonists stand as a model for the development of targeted CNS small-molecule therapeutics. The identification of mutations in the gene for the orexin 2 receptor responsible for canine narcolepsy, the demonstration of a hypersomnolence phenotype in hypocretin knockout mice and the disruption in orexin signaling in narcoleptic(More)