Anthony Holland

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Theories of incentive motivation attempt to capture the way in which objects and events in the world can acquire high motivational value and drive behavior, even in the absence of a clear biological need. In addition, for an individual to select the most appropriate goal, the incentive values of competing desirable objects need to be defined and compared.(More)
BACKGROUND Research based on retrospective reports by carers suggests that the presentation of dementia in people with Down's syndrome may differ from that typical of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the general population, with the earliest changes tending to be in personality or behaviour rather than in memory. This is the first long-term prospective study to(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research suggests that preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by changes in personality/behaviour and executive dysfunction that are more prominent than deterioration in episodic memory. This study examines the relationship between executive dysfunction and the clinical and preclinical(More)
In a population-based study of Prader Willi syndrome (PWS), we investigated the relation between genetic subtypes of the syndrome and psychiatric morbidity. Of 25 patients aged 18 years or older, seven (28%) had severe affective disorder with psychotic features, with a mean age of onset of 26 years (SD 5.9). The seven people affected, all aged 28 years or(More)
The motivation to eat in humans is a complex process influenced by intrinsic mechanisms relating to the hunger and satiety cascade, and extrinsic mechanisms based on the appetitive incentive value of individual foods, which can themselves induce desire. This study was designed to investigate the neural basis of these two factors contributing to the control(More)
OBJECTIVES Myotonic dystrophy is a disease characterised by myotonia and muscle weakness. Psychiatric disorder and sleep problems have also been considered important features of the illness. This study investigated the extent to which apathy, major depression, and hypersomnolence were present. The objective was to clarify if the apathy reported anecdotally(More)
BACKGROUND The reported prevalence rates of dementia in people with Down's syndrome have varied considerably across studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of clinical change with age using an established diagnostic instrument in an unbiased, population-based sample of older people with Down's syndrome. METHOD Changes in memory,(More)
This paper reports the preliminary results of a combined twin and family study of anorexia nervosa. Fifty-six per cent of the 25 female monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and 5% of the 20 female dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were concordant for anorexia nervosa. Nearly 5% of other female first degree relatives also had a history of anorexia nervosa. Analysis of data(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Prader-Willi syndrome throughout the life span to guide clinical practice. PARTICIPANTS An open international multidisciplinary expert meeting was held in October 2006 in Toulouse, France, with 37 invited speakers and session chairs (see(More)
BACKGROUND Despite numerous reports of changes in satiety, food preference, and eating habits in patients with frontotemporal dementia, there have been few systematic studies. OBJECTIVES To investigate the frequency of changes in eating behaviours and the sequence of development of eating behaviours in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease,(More)