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Effects of dimeric TNF receptor (p80) Fc (TNFR:Fc) on acute phase responses were evaluated in 18 volunteers given endotoxin (4 ng/kg i.v.). Subjects were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 6), low dose TNFR:Fc (10 mg/m2 i.v., n = 6), or high dose TNFR:Fc (60 mg/m2 i.v., n = 6). TNFR:Fc blocked plasma TNF bioactivity (p = 0.001) and increased, in a(More)
Systemic inflammation because of sepsis results in endothelial cell activation and microvascular injury. High-mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1), a novel inflammatory molecule, is a late mediator of endotoxin shock and is present in the blood of septic patients. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on endothelium and is a(More)
CONTEXT Sepsis bundles have been developed to improve patient outcomes by combining component therapies. Valid bundles require effective components with additive benefits. Proponents encourage evaluation of bundles, both as a whole and based on the performance of each component. OBJECTIVE Assess the association between outcome and the utilization of(More)
Interleukin 8 (IL-8), a potent activator of neutrophils, may be important in the early host response to serious Gram-negative infections. IL-8 was measured with other acute phase cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], IL-6 and IL-1 beta) in 25 normal humans randomized to receive either intravenous endotoxin alone or endotoxin after oral(More)
Bacterial sepsis is characterized by a systemic inflammatory state, with activation of numerous cell types. Phagocytes participate in this phenomenon by secreting various proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as gelatinases are produced by phagocytes and are thought to play an important role in processes of cell(More)
To evaluate alterations in renal blood flow in sepsis-induced renal failure, we developed and studied a percutaneously placed thermodilution renal blood flow catheter in eight critically ill patients. Para-aminohippurate extraction coefficients were decreased, supporting the need for renal vein sampling to determine CPAH in sepsis. Thermodilution and CPAH(More)
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NIP) are pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that occur in the absence of a detectable opportunistic infection or neoplasm. We reviewed lung biopsy specimens from 50 adult HIV-infected patients, of whom four had LIP and 46 had NIP. The(More)
Septic shock is the commonest cause of death in intensive care units. Although sepsis usually produces a low systemic vascular resistance and elevated cardiac output, strong evidence (decreased ejection fraction and reduced response to fluid administration) suggests that the ventricular myocardium is depressed and the ventricle dilated. In survivors, these(More)
To evaluate the effects of endotoxemia on respiratory controller function, 12 subjects were randomized to receive endotoxin or saline; six also received ibuprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and six received placebo. Administration of endotoxin produced fever, increased respiratory frequency, decreased inspiratory time, and widened alveolar-arterial oxygen(More)
To study local lung inflammation, 34 subjects had endotoxin (1-4 ng/kg) instilled into a lung segment and saline instilled into a contralateral segment followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, or 48 h. Endotoxin instillation resulted in a focal inflammatory response with a distinct time course. An early phase (2 h to 6 h) revealed an(More)