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Effects of dimeric TNF receptor (p80) Fc (TNFR:Fc) on acute phase responses were evaluated in 18 volunteers given endotoxin (4 ng/kg i.v.). Subjects were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 6), low dose TNFR:Fc (10 mg/m2 i.v., n = 6), or high dose TNFR:Fc (60 mg/m2 i.v., n = 6). TNFR:Fc blocked plasma TNF bioactivity (p = 0.001) and increased, in a(More)
Septic shock is the commonest cause of death in intensive care units. Although sepsis usually produces a low systemic vascular resistance and elevated cardiac output, strong evidence (decreased ejection fraction and reduced response to fluid administration) suggests that the ventricular myocardium is depressed and the ventricle dilated. In survivors, these(More)
Marked abnormalities in cardiovascular function accompany septic shock, and bacterial endotoxin is believed to be one of the principal mediators of these abnormalities. To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of endotoxemia in humans, we measured hemodynamic variables in nine normal subjects given an intravenous bolus dose of endotoxin (Escherichia coli, 4(More)
Systemic inflammation because of sepsis results in endothelial cell activation and microvascular injury. High-mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1), a novel inflammatory molecule, is a late mediator of endotoxin shock and is present in the blood of septic patients. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on endothelium and is a(More)
Interleukin 8 (IL-8), a potent activator of neutrophils, may be important in the early host response to serious Gram-negative infections. IL-8 was measured with other acute phase cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], IL-6 and IL-1 beta) in 25 normal humans randomized to receive either intravenous endotoxin alone or endotoxin after oral(More)
CONTEXT Sepsis bundles have been developed to improve patient outcomes by combining component therapies. Valid bundles require effective components with additive benefits. Proponents encourage evaluation of bundles, both as a whole and based on the performance of each component. OBJECTIVE Assess the association between outcome and the utilization of(More)
Bacterial sepsis is characterized by a systemic inflammatory state, with activation of numerous cell types. Phagocytes participate in this phenomenon by secreting various proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as gelatinases are produced by phagocytes and are thought to play an important role in processes of cell(More)
To define gene expression profiles that occur during the initial activation of human innate immunity, we administered intravenous endotoxin (n = 8) or saline (n = 4) to healthy subjects and hybridized RNA from blood mononuclear cells (0, 0.5, 6, 24, 168 h) or whole blood (0, 3, 6, 24, 168 h) to oligonucleotide probe arrays. The greatest change in(More)
To evaluate alterations in renal blood flow in sepsis-induced renal failure, we developed and studied a percutaneously placed thermodilution renal blood flow catheter in eight critically ill patients. Para-aminohippurate extraction coefficients were decreased, supporting the need for renal vein sampling to determine CPAH in sepsis. Thermodilution and CPAH(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluate the effects of methylprednisolone on markers of inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis during early acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING Four intensive care units. SUBJECTS Seventy-nine of 91 patients with available samples enrolled in a randomized, blinded controlled trial. (More)