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BACKGROUND Alterations in hedgehog signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of basal-cell carcinoma. Although most basal-cell carcinomas are treated surgically, no effective therapy exists for locally advanced or metastatic basal-cell carcinoma. A phase 1 study of vismodegib (GDC-0449), a first-in-class, small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway,(More)
An understanding of the differences and similarities of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) systems requires knowledge of the diversity of their family members, their patterns of expression, and their pharmacological response to ligands. In this paper we report the isolation of a family of mouse RXR genes encoding three distinct(More)
The vertebrate retinoid X receptor (RXR) has been implicated in the regulation of multiple hormonal signaling pathways through the formation of heteromeric receptor complexes that bind DNA with high affinity. We now demonstrate that ultraspiracle (usp), a Drosophila RXR homolog, can substitute for RXR in stimulating the DNA binding of receptors for retinoic(More)
Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PATCHED (PTC) are found in human patients with the basal cell nevus syndrome, a disease causing developmental defects and tumors, including basal cell carcinomas. Gene regulatory relationships defined in the fruit fly Drosophila suggest that overproduction of Sonic hedgehog (SHH), the ligand for PTC, will mimic loss of(More)
Nuclear hormone receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional activities of steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormones. A growing number of related proteins have been identified that possess the structural features of hormone receptors, but that lack known ligands. Known as orphan receptors, these(More)
Ultraspiracle (usp) encodes the Drosophila cognate of RXR, the human retinoid X receptor. To examine how RXR subfamily members function in development, we have undertaken a phenotypic analysis of usp mutants. usp is required at multiple stages of development for functions that occur in a wide variety of tissues. usp is required in the eye-antennal imaginal(More)
During hair follicle morphogenesis, dermal papillae (DPs) function as mesenchymal signaling centers that cross-talk with overlying epithelium to regulate morphogenesis. While the DP regulates hair follicle formation, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of DP formation. The morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is known for regulating hair follicle(More)
Growth of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) requires high levels of hedgehog (HH) signalling through the transcription factor GLI. Although inhibitors of membrane protein smoothened (SMO) effectively suppress HH signalling, early tumour resistance illustrates the need for additional downstream targets for therapy. Here we identify atypical protein kinase C ι/λ(More)
Identification of complementary DNAs encoding the human glucocorticoid receptor predicts two protein forms, of 777 (alpha) and 742 (beta) amino acids, which differ at their carboxy termini. The proteins contain a cysteine/lysine/arginine-rich region which may define the DNA-binding domain. Pure radiolabelled glucocorticoid receptor, synthesized in vitro, is(More)
The vitamin A derivative, retinoic acid, can regulate morphogenesis and differentiation in vertebrates. Two different subfamilies of the steroid receptor superfamily of transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors and the retinoid X receptor, mediate the effects of retinoic acid. As part of an analysis of the hormonal control of development, we have(More)