Anthony D. Hawkins

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The behavior of wild, pelagic fish in response to sound playback was observed with a sonar/echo sounder. Schools of sprat Sprattus sprattus and mackerel Scomber scombrus were examined at a quiet coastal location. The fish were exposed to a short sequence of repeated impulsive sounds, simulating the strikes from a pile driver, at different sound pressure(More)
This paper presents science-based, interim noise exposure criteria for the onset of direct physical injury in fish exposed to the impact sound associated with pile driving. This paper provides an objective, scientific assessment of pile driving exposures which are injurious to fish. It does not explicitly consider policies of regulatory agencies which are(More)
The expansion of shipping and aquatic industrial activities in recent years has led to growing concern about the effects of man-made sounds on aquatic life. Sources include (but are not limited to) pleasure boating, fishing, the shipping of goods, offshore exploration for oil and gas, dredging, construction of bridges, harbors, oil and gas platforms, wind(More)
Fish can sense a wide variety of sounds by means of the otolith organs of the inner ear. Among the incompletely understood components of this process are the patterns of movement of the otoliths vis-à-vis fish head or whole-body movement. How complex are the motions? How does the otolith organ respond to sounds from different directions and frequencies? In(More)
Researchers often perform hearing studies on fish in small tanks. The acoustic field in such a tank is considerably different from the acoustic field that occurs in the animal's natural environment. The significance of these differences is magnified by the nature of the fish's auditory system where either acoustic pressure (a scalar), acoustic particle(More)
In this paper, we discuss the issues encountered when trying to perform hearing experiments in water-filled tanks that are several meters in lateral extent, typically large in terms of the size of the animals under study but not necessarily so with respect to the wavelengths of interest. This paper presents measurements of pressure and particle motion(More)
A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of afoxolaner chewables to control flea populations in naturally infested dogs in private residences in Tampa FL, USA. Evaluations of on-animal and premises flea burdens, flea sex structure and fed-unfed premises flea populations were conducted to more accurately assess flea population dynamics in(More)
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become popular for estimating hearing thresholds and audiograms. What is the utility of these measurements? How do AEP audiograms compare with behavioral audiograms? In general, AEP measurements for fishes and marine mammals often underestimate behavioral thresholds, but comparisons are especially complicated when the(More)
A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking(More)
This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental(More)